Materiales de Construcción, Vol 64, No 313 (2014)

Durability of recycled aggregate concrete designed with the Equivalent Mortar Volume (EMV) method: Validation under the Spanish context and its adaptation to Bolomey methodology

C. Jiménez
Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain

M. Barra
Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain

S. Valls
Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain

D. Aponte
Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain

E. Vázquez
Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain


Some durability properties are analyzed in concretes made with a novel method for recycled aggregates concrete (RAC) proportioning, in order to validate it under the Spanish context. Two types of concrete mixes were elaborated; one following the guidelines of the named method, and other based on an adaptation of the method to Bolomey methodology. Two types of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) were used. RCA replacement for natural aggregates (NA) ranged from 20% to 100%. The 20% was chosen in order to comply with Spanish recommendations. Water penetration under pressure, water absorption and chlorides attack were the studied properties. It is verified that the new method and the developed adaptation results in concrete mixes of better or similar properties to those of the natural aggregates concrete (NAC) and the conventional RAC, saving important amounts of cement.


Portland Cement; Durability; Sustainability; Recycled Aggregates; Recycled Concrete

Full Text:



1. Glavind, A.; Munch-Petersen, C. (2000) 'Green' concrete in Denmark. Structural Concrete, 1 [1], 1–7.

2. Razaqpur, A.G.; Fathifazl, G.; Isgor, B.; Abbas, A.; Fournier, B.; Foo, S. (2010) How to produce high quality concrete mixes with recycled concrete aggregate, Construction Waste Recycling and Civil Engineering Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the ICWEM 2010, 11–35.

3. ACI Committe 555: Removal and Reuse of Hardened Concrete - ACI 555R-01, ACI Committee, Detroit, (2001).

4. EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (EPA 430-R-11-005), EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), Washington, (2011).

5. Maier, P.L.; Durham, S.A. (2012) Beneficial use of recycled materials in concrete mixtures. Construc. Build. Mat. [29], 428–437.

6. Jiménez, C.; Barra, M.; Valls, S.; Aponte, D.; Vázquez, E. (2013) Equivalent Mortar Volume (EMV) method for proportioning recycled aggregate concrete: Validation under the Spanish context and its adaptation to Bolomey methodology for concrete proportioning. Mater. Construcc.

7. Comisión Permanente del Hormigón: Instrucción de Hormigón Estructural. EHE-08, Ministerio de Fomento. Madrid (2008).

8. Barra, M.: Estudio de la durabilidad del hormigón de árido reciclado en su aplicación como hormigón armado. Barcelona (1996).

9. ASTM International: ASTM C143/C 143M - 10a Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, (2010).

10. ASTM International: ASTM C231/C 231M - 10 Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, (2010).

11. Comité Técnico AEN/CTN 83 Hormigón: UNE-EN 12390-7:2009. Ensayos de hormigón endurecido. Parte 7: Densidad del hormigón endurecido, AENOR. Madrid (2009).

12. Comité Técnico AEN/CTN 83 Hormigón: UNE-EN 12390-3: 2009/AC. Ensayos de hormigón endurecido. Parte 3: Determinación de la resistencia a compresión de probetas, AENOR. Madrid (2009).

13. Comité Técnico AEN/CTN 83 Hormigón: UNE 83316:1996. Ensayos de hormigón. Determinación del módulo de elasticidad en compresión, AENOR. Madrid (2009).

14. Comité Técnico AEN/CTN 83 Hormigón: UNE 83892: 2008. Durabilidad del hormigón. Métodos de ensayo. Determinación de la absorción de agua por capilaridad del hormigón endurecido-Método Fagerlund, AENOR. Madrid (2009).

15. Comité Técnico AEN/CTN 83 Hormigón: UNE-EN 12390-8:2001. Ensayos de hormigón endurecido. Parte 8: Profundidad de penetración de agua bajo presión, AENOR. Madrid (2009).

16. Otsuki, N., et al. (1992) Evaluation of AgNO3 Solution Spray Method for Measurement of Chloride Penetration into Hardened Cementitious Matrix Materials. ACI Materials Journal, 89, 587–592.

17. NORDTEST: NT BUILD 443:1995. Hardened Concrete: Accelerated Chloride Penetration, NORDTEST. Espoo (1995).

18. Comité Técnico AEN/CTN 83 Hormigón: UNE 83966: 2008. Durabilidad del hormigón. Métodos de ensayo. Acondicionamiento de probetas de hormigón para los ensayos de permeabilidad a gases y capilaridad, AENOR. Madrid (2008).

19. Castro, J.; Bentz, D.; Weiss, J. (2011) Effect of sample conditioning on the water absorption of concrete. Cem. Concr. Comp, 33, 805–813.

20. Hansen, T.C. (1992) Recycling of Demolished Concrete and Masonry. RILEM, Londres.

21. Quéneudec, M.; Benazzouk, A.; Douzane, O. (2004) Transport of fluids in cement-rubber composites. Cem. Concr. Comp., 26, 21–29.

22. Grupo de trabajo 2/3. Aditivos químicos para Hormigón Estructural.: Monografía 16. Manual de Tecnología de Aditivos para Hormigón, ACHE (Asociación Científico-Técnica del Hormigón Estructural). (2010). ISBN: 978-84-89670-70-9.

23. He, F.; Shi, C.; Yuan, Q.; Chen, C.; Zheng, K. (2012) AgNO3-based colorimetric methods for measurement of chloride penetration in concrete. Construc. Build. Mat. 26, 1–8.

24. NORDTEST: NT BUILD 208. Concrete, Hardened: Chloride Content, NORDTEST. Espoo (2005).

25. Frederiksen, J.M.; Sorensen, H.E.; Andersen, A.; Klinghoffer, O. (1997) HETEK, The effect of the w/c ratio on chloride transport into concrete - Immersion, migration and resistivity tests, Road Directorate - Ministry of Transport. Denmark, ISSN/ISBN: 0909-4288 / 87 7492 735 8.

26. Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia: Chloride Resistance of Concrete, Cem. Concr. Aggreg. Australia. Australia, (2009).

27. Ollivier, J.P. (1998) Durability of Concrete, Escola Politécnica da USP/Departamento de Engenharia de Construcao Civil. Sao Paulo, ISSN: 0103-9830.

28. Han, SH. (2007) Influence of diffusion coefficient on chloride ion penetration of concrete structure. Construc. Build. Mat, 21 [2], 370–378.

29. Nilsson, L.-O.; Poulsen, E.; Sandberg, P.; Sorensen, H.E.; Klinghoffer, O. (1996) HETEK, Chloride penetration into concrete, State-of-the-Art, Transport processes, corrosion initiation, test methods and prediction models, Danish Road Directorate. Denmark, ISSN/ISBN: 0909-4288 / 87 7491 736 6.

Copyright (c) 2014 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support