Materiales de Construcción, Vol 59, No 296 (2009)

Credibility of concepts and models about service life of concrete structures in the face of the effects of the global climatic change. A critical review


https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2009.46608

J. M. Mendoza-Rangel
Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Mexico

P. Castro-Borges
Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Mexico

Abstract


Service life definitions involve more considerations today than thirty years ago. This is because only mechanical parameters were taken into account by then. Other parameters like durability were introduced a few years ago but it is difficult to use these parameters to predict service life and validate, nowadays, future behavior. This is due mainly to a mixture of variables, methods, materials and environments whose behavior is hard to predict. These factors take special importance facing the effects from the climatic change that causes unpredictable and hardly modelling environmental behavior in terms of service life of the concrete.

The aim of this work is to review critically the definitions of durability and service life of diverse codes and international associations, making emphasis in the points that must be improved to be in accordance with the requirements that suppose the effects of the climatic change. With base in this, new definitions of service life and durability were set out. A proposal to modify the philosophy of the approaches of service life must make emphasis in dividing service life in several stages, which could be the key to take into account the global climatic change.

Keywords


concrete; climatic change; durability; service life; prediction models

Full Text:


PDF

References


(1) The intergovernmental panel of climate change (IPCC): “Thirth Evaluation Inform, Climatic Change 2001, The Scientific Base” (2001).

(2) Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ): “The English Edition of Principal Guide for Service Life Planning of Buildings”, Architectural Institute of Japan, Japan (1993).

(3) Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE): “Proposed Specification Of Durability Design For Concrete Structures”, Translation from the Concrete Library No. 82 published by JSCE, Japan (1995).

(4) Published Document PD 6534:1993: “Guide to the use in the UK of DD ENV 206: 1992 Concrete. Performance, production, placing and complance criteria”, United Kingdom (1993).

(5) Canadian Standars Association (CSA S478-1995): “Guideline on durability in buildings”, Canada (1995).

(6) NMX-C-403-ONNCCE-1999: “Construction Industry – Hydraulic Concrete for Structural Use” (in Spanish), México (1999).

(7) Spanish Instruction of Structural Concrete (EHE), Chapter VII, B.O.E. January 13th (1999).

(8) American Concrete Institute (ACI) 365.1R-00: “Service-Life Prediction, State-of-the-Art Report”, reported by ACI Committee 365 (2000).

(9) Brazilian Association of Technical Codes, NBR 6118: “Concrete Structures Project-Procedure” (2002).

(10) European Organization for Technical Approvals (EOTA): “Characterisation, Aspects of durability and Factory Production Control for Reactive Materials, Components and Products”, TR024 (2006).

(11) Lifecon Deliverable D3.2: “Service Life Models, Instructions on methodology and application of models for the prediction of the residual service life for classified environmental loads and types of structures in Europe”, Life Cycle Management of Concrete Infrastructures for Improved Sustainability, Lay, Sascha and Schießl, Peter, authors (2003).

(12) Sanjuán Barbudo, M. A.; Castro-Borges, P.: “Action of the Chemical and Phisical agents over Concrete”, Mexican Institute of Cement and Concrete (IMCYC), ISBN 968-464-097-8 (2001), pp. 3-27.

(13) Manual of Concrete Structures Rehabilitation: “Raparation, Reinforcement and protection”, Helene, P. And Pereira F., Editors, ISBN 85- 903707-1-2 (2003).

(14) Canadian Standards Assosiation (CSA): “The Role of Standards in Adapting Canada’s Infrastructure to the Impacts of Climate Change” (2006).

(15) DURAR Network: “Inspection, evaluation and Diagnostic manual of Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete Structures”, CYTED, Iberoamerican Program of Science and Tecnology for Development, Subprogram XV Environmental Corrosion/Impact about Materials, Maracaibo, Venezuela, CYTED (1997).

(16) Construction Products Directive (CPD), European Community Council 89/106/EWG updated 93/68/EWG (1998).

(17) CIB W80 / RILEM 175 SLM: “Service Life Methodologies Prediction of Service Life for Building and Components”, Task Group Performance Based Methods for Service Life Prediction, State of the Art Reports, March (2004).

(18) New Zealand Building Code, Clause B2: “Durability”, ISBN 0-477-01606-5 (2004).

(19) Tuutti, K.: “Corrosion of steel in concrete”, CBI, Research report 4, 1982, Stockholm (1982).

(20) Masters, L. W.: “Service life prediction – A state of the art”, 4th International Conference on Durabilty of Building Materials and Components, Singapore, 4-6 November (1987).

(21) British Standards Institution: BS 7543:1992 Guide to Durability of Buildings and Building Elements, Products and Components. British Standards Institution, London, UK (1992).

(22) Andrade, C.: “Quantification of durability of reinforcing steel, methods and calculation procedures”. Of Concrete Technology: New Trends, Industrial Applications. Edited by A. Aguado, R. Gettu and S. P. Shah. Rilem. Published by E&FN Spon, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK ISBN 0 419 20150 5, pp. 158-175 (1994).

(23) Sarja, A.; Vesikari, E.: “Durability Design of Concrete Structures”, Manuscript of RILEM Report of TC 130-CSL, RILEM Report Series 14, Chapter 7 Durability models, pp. 97-111, E & FN Spon, Chapman and Hall, 165 p (1996).

(24) Pettersson, K.: “Service life of concrete structure including the propagation time”, Concrete Under Severe Conditions 2/1998, O. E. Gjorv, K. Sakai, N. Banthia (editors), vol. 1, p. 489, International Conference on Concrete Under Severe Condition, Norway (1998).

(25) De Coss, R.; Murrieta, G.; Castro, P.: “Effect of weather cycles on chloride diffusion in porous concrete”, in Rehabilitation of Corrosion Damaged Infrastructure, Chapter IV: Modeling, methods, techniques and technologies. August, 1998, P. Castro, O. Troconis, C. Andrade (editors), NACE International, ISBN-970-92095-0-7 (1998), pp. 285-293.

(26) Helene, P.: “Service life of concrete structures”, in VI congress of quality central (CONPAT 1997), University of Rio Grande del Sur, vol. 1 (1997), pp. 1-30.

(27) Siemes, T.; Edvardsen, C.: “DuraCrete: Service life design for concrete structures”, 8DBMC, (1999), pp. 1343-1356.

(28) Caré, S.; Hervé, E.: “Prediction of the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete using the homogenzation technique”, in Second International RILEM Workshop on Testing and Modeling the Chloride Ingress into Concrete, C. Andrade, J. Kropp (editors), Paris, France (2000).

(29) Siemes, T.; Vries, H.: “Overview of the development of service life design for concrete structures”, 9DBMC, paper 261 (2002).

(30) Rostam, S.: “Service life of concrete structures – a design approach for the future”, in Concreto Colloquia, São Carlos, SP, Brazil (2003).

(31) Lindvall, A.: “Models for environmental actions on reinforced concrete structures”, in Repair and Renovation of Concrete Structures, Ravindra K Dhir, M. Roderick Jones, and Li Zheng (editors), International Conference Held, at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK (2005), pp. 65-72.

(32) Zhang, J.; Lounis, Z.: “Sensitivity analysis of simplified difusion-based corrosion initiation model of concrete structures exposed to chlorides”, in Cement and Concrete Research, 36, 1312-1323 (2006).

(33) Castro-Borges, P.; Helene, P.: “Service Life of Reinforced Concrete Structures. New Approach”, ECS Transactions, vol. 3, no. 13, ISBN 978-1-56677-540-3, pp. 9-14 (2007).

(34) Baroghel-Bouny, V.; Thai Luang Nguyen: “Performance-based design of concrete and multi-level prediction of RC durability in coastal and marine environments”, MEDACHS08, Construction Heritage in Coastal and Marine Environments, Damage, diagnostics, maintenance, and rehabilitation. Lisbon, Portugal, 28-29 January (2008).




Copyright (c) 2009 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us materconstrucc@ietcc.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es