Materiales de Construcción, Vol 67, No 326 (2017)

Use of rubber shreds to enhance attenuation of railway sub-ballast layers made of unbound aggregates


https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2017.00316

C. Hidalgo-Signes
Department of Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6354-4994

J. Garzón-Roca
Department of Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4512-7067

J. M. Grima-Palop
Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1752-9499

R. Insa-Franco
Department of Transport Engineering and Infrastructure, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6655-4458

Abstract


One of the approaches for solving the problem of induced vibrations in railways is by slightly modifying the materials that form the track. A study is presented of the attenuation capacity of mixes composed of granular soil and rubber shreds when used as sub-ballast (the layer located immediately below the ballast layer). Rubber shreds are obtained from scrap tyres, a troublesome waste material whose reuse and recycling is necessary. A series of mixes of granular soil and rubber shreds with rubber contents of between 1% and 10% are submitted to hammer impact tests to study their response to dynamic excitation. Results reveal that mixing rubber shreds with granular soil increases damping ratios, thus demonstrating the potential of the proposed mixes for attenuating vibration.

Keywords


Waste treatment; Aggregate; Mixture proportion; Vibration; Acceleration

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Auersch, L. (2005) The excitation of ground vibration by rail traffic: theory of vehicle-track-soil interaction and measurements on high-speed lines. J. Sound Vib. 284, 103–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2004.06.017

Di Mino, G.; Di Liberto, M. (2007) Modelling and experimental survey on ground borne vibration induced by rail traffic. 4th International SIIV Congress, Palermo, 2007.

Thompson, D.J. (2009) Railway Noise and Vibration: Mechanisms, Modelling and Means of control, Elsevier Ed. Oxford, (2009).

Ryue, J.; Thompson, D.J.; White, P.R.; Thompson D.R. (2008) Wave Propagation in Railway Tracks at High Frequencies. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems, 440–446, Edited by Schulte-Werning, B.; Thompson, D.; Gautier, P.E.; Hanson, C.; Hemsworth, B.; Nelson, J; Maeda, T.; de Val, P., Springer Berlin Heidelberg, (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74893-9_62

Zhang, W.; Dai, J.; Sun, B.; Du, Y. (2007) FBG sensor network in Qinghai-Tibet railway monitoring system. SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 488–495, Edited by Rao, Y.J.; Liao, Y.; Peng G.D., SPIE International Society for Optic and Photonics, Beijing, (2007).

Oertli, J. (2000) Cost-Benefit Analysis in Railway Noise Control. J. Sound Vib. 231 [3], 505–509. https://doi.org/10.1006/jsvi.1999.2539

Kouroussis, G.; Verlinden, O.; Conti, C. (2009) Ground propagation of vibrations from railway vehicles using a finite/infinite-element model of the soil. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Transp. 223 [4], 405–413. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544097jrrt253

Alves Costa, P.; Cal.ada, R.; Silva Cardoso, A. (2012) Ballast mats for the reduction of railway traffic vibrations. Numerical study. Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 42, 137–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2012.06.014

Lombaert, G.; Degrande, G.; Vanhauwere, B.; Vandeborght, B.; Fran.ois, S. (2006) The control of ground-borne vibrations from railway traffic by means of continuous floating slabs. J. Sound Vib. 297 [3-5], 946–961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2006.05.013

Zhao, C.; Wang, P.; Yi, Q.; Meng, D. (2015). Viability Analysis of Waste Tires as Material for Rail Vibration and Noise Control in Modern Tram Track Systems. Shock Vib. 2015, Article ID 725808, 12 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/725808

Alzawi, A.; Hesham El Naggar, M. (2011) Full scale experimental study on vibration scattering using open and in-filled (GeoFoam) wave barriers. Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 31 [3], 306–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2010.08.010

Jones, C.J.C.; Thompson D.J.; Andreu Medina, J.I. (2011) Initial theoretical study of reducing surface-propagating vibration from trains using earthworks close to the track. Eighth International Conference on Structural Dynamics EURODYN, Leuven, 2011.

Karlstr.m, A.; Bostr.m, A. (2007) Efficiency of trenches along railways for trains moving at sub- or supersonic speeds. Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 27 [7], 625–641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2006.12.005

Zhao, C.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.; Zhao W.; Xiao J. (2012) Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on vibration damping fastening. Journal of Vibration and Shock 31 [23], 191–196.

Sharma, V.K.; Fortuna, F.; Mincarini, M.; Berillo, M.; Cornacchia, G. (2000) Disposal of waste tyres for energy recovery and safe environment. Appl. Energy. 65 [1-4], 381–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-2619(99)00085-9

Sheehan, P.J.; Warmerdam, J.M.; Ogle, S.; Humphrey, D.N.; Patenaude, S.M. (2006) Evaluating the risk to aquatic ecosystems posed by leachate from tire shred fill in roads using toxicity tests, toxicity identification evaluations, and groundwater modeling. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25 [2], 400–411. https://doi.org/10.1897/04-532R2.1

European Commission (1999) Directive on the Landfill of Waste 1999/31/EC, Journal of European Commission, Brussels, (1999).

Almeida J.nior, A.F.; Battistelle, R.A.; Bezerra, B.S.; de Castro, R. (2012) Use of scrap tire rubber in place of SBS in modified asphalt as an environmentally correct alternative for Brazil. J. Cleaner Prod. 33; 236–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.03.039

Buonanno, A.; Mele, R. (2000) The use of bituminous mix sub-ballast in the Italian State Railways. 2nd Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress, Barcelona, 20-22 September 2000.

Di Mino, G.; Di Liberto, M.; Maggiore, C.; Noto, S. (2012) A Dynamic Model of Ballasted Rail Track with Bituminous Sub-Ballast Layer. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 53 [3], 366–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.888

Wang, J.; Zeng X. (2004) Numerical Simulations of Vibration Attenuation of High-Speed Train Foundations with Varied Trackbed Underlayment Materials. J. Vib. Control. 10 [8], 1123–1136. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546304043268

Wolfe S.L.; Humphrey, D.N.; Wetzel, E.A. (2004) Development of tire shred underlayment to reduce groundborne vibration from LRT track. Geotechnical Engineering for Transportation Projects, Geo-Trans, Los Angeles, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1061/40744(154)62

Feng, Z.; Sutter, K. (2000) Dynamic properties of granulated rubber/sand mixtures. Geotech. Test. J. 23 [3], 338–344. https://doi.org/10.1520/GTJ11055J

Nakhaei, A.; Marandi, S.M.; Sani Kermani, S.; Bagheripour, M.H. (2012) Dynamic properties of granular soils mixed with granulated rubber. Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 43, 124–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2012.07.026

Hidalgo, C.; Mart.nez, P; Medel, E.; Insa, R. (2015) Characterisation of an unbound granular mixture with waste tyre rubber for subballast layers. Mater Struct. 45 [12], 3847–3861. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-014-0443-z

Chopra, A.K. (2012) Dynamics of Structures: Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, (2012).

Manual for Railway Engineering (2015) American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association, AREMA.

ASTM D1241 (2007) Standard Specification for Materials for Soil-Aggregate Subbase, Base, and Surface Courses. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

UIC Code 719R (2008) Earthworks and Track-Bed Layers for Railway Lines. International Union of Railways, Paris.

PF-7 (2006) General Technical Specifications for Railway Materials PF-7: Sub-ballast. Spanish Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Madrid.

ASTM D1557 (2012) Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)). American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

UNE 103501 (1994) Geotechnical compaction test. Modified Proctor. Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.

UNE EN 14146 (2004) Natural stone test methods. Determination of the dynamic modulus of elasticity by measuring the fundamental resonance frequency. Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.

ASTM D6913 (2009) Standard test methods for particle size distribution (gradation) of soils using sieve analysis. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

UNE-EN 933-1 (1998) Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 1: Determination of particle size distribution - Sieving Method. Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.

ASTM D7760 (2012) Standard test method for measurement of hydraulic conductivity of tire derived aggregates using a rigid wall Permeameter. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM C127 (2012) Standard test method for density, relative density (specific gravity), and absorption of coarse aggregate. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

UNE-EN 1097-3 (1999) Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates. part 3: determination of loose bulk density and voids. Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.

ASTM D4318 (2010) Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

UNE 103103 (1994) Determination of the liquid limit of a soil by the Casagrande apparatus method. Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.

UNE 103104 (1993) Test for plastic limit of a soil. Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.

ASTM C131 (2006) Standard test method for resistance to degradation of small-size coarse aggregate by abrasion and impact in the Los Angeles machine. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

UNE-EN 1097-2 (1999) Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 2: Methods for the determination of resistance to fragmentation. Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.

ASTM D6928 (2010) Standard test method for resistance of coarse aggregate to degradation by abrasion in the Micro-Deval apparatus. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

UNE-EN 1097-1 (1997) Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 1: Determination of the resistance to wear (micro-Deval). Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.

ASTM D2974 (2013) Standard test methods for moisture, ash, and organic matter of peat and other organic soils. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA.

UNE 103204 (1993) Organic matter content of a soil by the potassium permanganate method. Spanish Association for Normalization and Certification (AENOR), Madrid.




Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us materconstrucc@ietcc.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es