Materiales de Construcción, Vol 69, No 333 (2019)

Use of fly ash and phosphogypsum for the synthesis of belite-sulfoaluminate clinker

S. Kramar
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Slovenia

L. Žibret
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Slovenia

E. Fidanchevska
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Slovenia

V. Jovanov
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of

B. Angjusheva
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of

V. Ducman
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Slovenia


Fly ash and phosphogypsum were used as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) by-products for the synthesis of belite-sulfoaluminate clinkers. The influence of raw mixture composition and firing temperature was investigated. Clinkers and cements were examined by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The compressive strength of the cements was determined after 28 days. Clinker phases identified included ye’elimite, ß-phase of belite, ternesite and gehlenite, while the main hydration product of the cement pastes was ettringite. The results showed that belite-sulfoaluminate cements can be fabricated with a compressive strength of 45.9 N/mm2 by firing the raw mixture (70 wt.% marl, 10 wt.% bauxite and 20 wt.% phosphogypsum) at a temperature of 1320°C/1h.


Clinker; Microstructure; Fly ash; Gypsum; Calcium sulphoaluminate

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