Materiales de Construcción, Vol 69, No 336 (2019)

Assessment of mechanical properties of fibrous mortar and interlocking soil stabilised block (ISSB) for low-cost masonry housing


https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2019.13418

F. Qamar
University of Warwick, United Kingdom
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2240-1035

T. Thomas
Engineering Dept. University of Warwick, United Kingdom
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9903-067X

M. Ali
Department of Civil Engineering, Capital University of Science and Technology, Pakistan
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3690-2183

Abstract


Walls of Interlocking Stabilised Soil Blocks (ISSBs) have been considered in low-cost houses around the world especially in developing countries. These were reported to be very weak in resisting the lateral load (e.g. wind or earthquake) without special considerations. In this paper, mechanical properties (compressive strength, elastic modulus, pre/post crack energy absorbed and toughness index) of ISSBs with three configurations and seven combinations of plain and fibrous mortar cubes are experimentally evaluated. Sisal fibre and rice straw (2% and 5%, by cement mass) were considered for fibrous mortar. Empirical equations were developed to predict elastic modulus. It was found that ISSBs had reasonable strength to be considered for masonry. The failure load and toughness index of 2% sisal fibre samples was improved by 10% and 16%, respectively, whereas 2.21 times enhancement was found in elastic modulus. Thus, 2% sisal fibre in plaster (i.e. reinforced coating) would likely improve the lateral resistance of interlocked masonry walling.

Keywords


Brick; Mortar; Mechanical properties; Fibre reinforcement; Image analysis

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Lee, Y.H.; Shek, P.N.; Mohammad, S. (2017) Structural performance of reinforced inte rlocking blocks column. Constr. Build. Mater. 142, 469-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.03.110

Bosiljkov, V.Z.; Totoev, Y.Z.; Nichols, J.M. (2005) Shear modulus and stiffness of brickwork masonry: An experimental perspective. Struct. Eng. and Mech. 20 [1], 21-43. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2005.20.1.021

Jaafar, M.S.; Thanoon, W.A.; Najm, A.M.S.; Abdulkadir, M.R.; Ali, A.A.A. (2006) Strength correlation between individual block, prism and basic wall panel for load bearing interlocking mortarless hollow block masonry. Constr. Build. Mater. 20 [7], 492-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.01.046

Juarez, C.; Guevara B.; Valdez, P.; Durán-Herrera, A. (2010) Mechanical properties of natural fibers reinforced sustainable masonry. Constr. Build. Mater. 24, 1536-1541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.02.007

Martínez, M.; Atamturktur, S. (2019) Experimental and numerical evaluation of reinforced dry-stacked concrete masonry walls. J. Build. Eng.22, 181-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.12.007

Anand, K.B.; Ramamurthy, K. (2000) Development and performance evaluation of interlocking-block masonry. J. Architect. Eng. 6 [2], 45-50. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1076-0431(2000)6:2(45)

Kintingu, S.H. (2009). Design of interlocking bricks for enhanced wall construction, flexibility, alignment accuracy and load bearing. Doctoral Thesis, Univerisy of Warwick, UK.

Fundi, S.I.; Kaluli, J.W.; Kinuthia, J. (2018) Performance of interlocking laterite soil block walls under static loading. Constr. Build. Mater. 171, 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.115

Dehghan, S.M.; Najafgholipour, M.A.; Baneshi, V.; Rowshanzamir, M. (2018) Mechanical and bond properties of solid clay brick masonry with different sand grading. Constr. Build. Mater. 174, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.042

Chewe Ngapeya, G.G.; Waldmann, D.; Scholzen, F. (2018) Impact of the height imperfections of masonry blocks on the load bearing capacity of dry-stack masonry walls. Constr. Build. Mater. 165, 898-913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.183

Gupta, R. (2014) Characterizing material properties of cement-stabilized rammed earth to construct sustainable insulated walls. Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 1, 60-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2014.04.002

Tripura, D.D.; Singh, K.D. (2018) Mechanical behaviour of rammed earth column: A comparison between unreinforced, steel and bamboo reinforced columns. Mater. Construcc. 68 [332]. https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2018.11517

Pereira, M.; Fujiyama, R.; Darwish, F.; Alves, G. (2015) On the Strengthening of Cement Mortar by Natural Fibers. Am. J. Mater. 18 [1], 177-183. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-1439.305314

Savastano, H.; Warden, P.G.; Coutts, R.S.P. (2003) Potential of alternative fibre cements as building materials for developing areas. Cem. Concr. Comp. 25 [6], 585-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(02)00071-9

Savastano, H.; Santos, S.F.; Radonjic, M.; Soboyejo, W.O. (2009) Fracture and fatigue of natural fiber-reinforced cementitious composites. Cem. Concr. Comp. 31 [4], 232-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.02.006

Zych, T.; Wojciech, K. (2012) Study on the properties of cement mortars with basalt fibres. Brittle Matrix Composites. Woodhead Publishing: 155-166. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857099891.155

Asadi, A.; Baaij, F.; Mainka, H.; Rademacher, M.; Thompson, J.; Kalaitzidou, K. (2017) Basalt fibers as a sustainable and cost-effective alternative to glass fibers in sheet molding compound (SMC). Comp. Part B: Eng., 123, 210-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.05.017

Ali, M.; Liu, A.; Sou, H.; Chouw, N. (2012) Mechanical and dynamic properties of coconut fibre reinforced concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 30, 814-825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.12.068

Lertwattanaruk, P.; Suntijitto, A. (2015) Properties of natural fiber cement materials containing coconut coir and oil palm fibers for residential building applications. Constr. Build. Mater.94, 664-669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.07.154

Toihidul Islam, M.; Bindiganavile, V. (2011) The impact resistance of masonry units bound with fibre reinforced mortars. Constr. Build. Mater. 25 [6], 2851-2859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.12.049

EN 1015-11:2000Methods of test for mortar for masonry. Part 11: Determination of flexural and compressive strength of hardened mortar.

Khedari, J.; Watsanasathaporn, P.; Hirunlabh, J. (2005) Development of fibre-based soil-cement block with low thermal conductivity. Cem. Concr. Comp. 27 [1], 111-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2004.02.042

Khedari, J.; Suttisonk, B.; Pratinthong, N.; Hirunlabh, J. (2001) New lightweight composite construction materials with low thermal conductivity. Cem. Concr. Comp. 23 [1], 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(00)00072-X

Asasutjarit, C.; Charoenvai, S.; Hirunlabh, J.; Khedari, J. (2009) Materials and mechanical properties of pretreated coir-based green composites. Comp. Part B: Eng. 40 [7], 633-637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2009.04.009

Ramamoorthy, S.K.; Skrifvars, M.; Persson, A. (2015) A Review of Natural Fibers Used in Biocomposites: Plant, Animal and Regenerated Cellulose Fibers. Polymer Reviews, 55 [1], 107-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583724.2014.971124

Zhang, K.; Wang, F.X.; Liang, W.Y.; Wang, Z.Q.; Duan, Z.W.; Yang, B. (2018) Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites. Polymers, 10 [6], 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060608 PMid:30966642 PMCid:PMC6404121

Naveen, J.; Jawaid, M.; Amuthakkannan, P.; Chandrasekar, M. (2019) Mechanical and physical properties of sisal and hybrid sisal fiber-reinforced polymer composites. Mechanical and Physical Testing of Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites. Woodhead Publishing, 427-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102292-4.00021-7

Khonsari, S.V.; Eslami, E.; Anvari, A. (2018) Fibrous and non-fibrous Perlite concretes-experimental and SEM studies. European J. Environm. Civil Eng., 22 [2], 138-164. https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2016.1182083

EN 1052-1:1999. Methods of test for masonry. Determination of compressive strength.

Zia, A.; Ali, M. (2017) Behavior of fiber reinforced concrete for controlling the rate of cracking in canal-lining. Constr. Build. Mater. 155, 726-739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.078

Guerreiro, J.; Proença, J.; Ferreira, J.G.; Gago, A. (2018) Experimental characterization of in-plane behaviour of old masonry walls strengthened through the addition of CFRP reinforced render. Comp. Part B: Eng.148, 14-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.04.045

Marcari, G.; Manfredi, G.; Prota, A.; Pecce, M. (2007) In-plane shear performance of masonry panels strengthened with FRP. Comp. Part B: Eng. 38 [7-8], 887-901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2006.11.004

Dizhur, D.; Griffith, M.; Ingham, J. (2014) Out-of-plane strengthening of unreinforced masonry walls using near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer strips. Eng. Struct. 59, 330-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.10.026




Copyright (c) 2019 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us materconstrucc@ietcc.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es