Materiales de Construcción, Vol 70, No 337 (2020)

Evaluation of the physical-mechanical properties of cement-lime based masonry mortars produced with mixed recycled aggregates

R. L.S. Ferreira
Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Civil Engineering Department, Brazil

M. A.S. Anjos
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Paraiba, Civil Construction Department, Brazil

E. F. Ledesma
Área de Mecánica de Medios Continuos y Teoría de Estructuras, Universidad de Córdoba, Spain

J. E.S. Pereira
University of Rio Grande do Norte, Chemical Engineering Department, Brazil

A. K.C. Nóbrega
Federal University of the Semi-arid, Engineering of Department, Brazil


This study investigated the physical-mechanical effects of cement-lime mortars containing recycled aggregate of construction and demolition waste (CDW). The natural aggregate (NA) was replaced by volume at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by mixed recycled aggregate (MRA) obtained from the CDW crushing. Five types of mortars were prepared with a volumetric ratio of 1:1:6 (cement, lime and aggregate) and water/binder ratio based on the fixed consistency of 260 mm. The effects of MRA on fresh and hardened mortars’ properties were analyzed. The results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. MRA incorporation improved most of the physical-mechanical properties of mortars tested, except for hardened bulk density, water absorption and porosity. In the long-run, mechanical strengths significantly increased in all compositions, especially those with higher percentages of MRA. The results obtained showed that the use of MRA in masonry mortars is an alternative to reduce the generation of waste and consumption of natural resources.


Mortar; Mechanical properties; Physical properties; Compressive strength; Waste treatment

Full Text:



Kisku, N.; Joshi, H.; Ansari, M.; Panda, S.K.; Nayak, S.; Dutta, S.C. (2017) A critical review and assessment for usage of recycled aggregate as sustainable construction material. Constr. Build. Mater. 131, 721–740.

Muñoz-Ruiperez, C.; Rodríguez, A.; Gutiérrez-González, S.; Calderón, V. (2016.) Lightweight masonry mortars made with expanded clay and recycled aggregates. Constr. Build. Mater. 118, 139–145.

Silva, R. V.; De Brito, J.; Dhir, R.K. (2015) Prediction of the shrinkage behavior of recycled aggregate concrete: A review. Constr. Build. Mater. 77, 327–339.

Pacheco-Torgal, F. (2017). High tech startup creation for energy efficient built environment. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 71, 618–629.

Kulatunga, U.; Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R.; Rameezdeen, R. (2006) Attitudes and perceptions of construction workforce on construction waste in Sri Lanka. Manag. Environ. Qual. An Int. J. 17, 57–72.

Krausmann, F.; Fischer-Kowalski, M.; Schandl, H.; Eisenmenger, N. (2008) The global sociometabolic transition: Past and present metabolic profiles and their future trajectories. J. Ind. Ecol. 12, 637–656.

Tam, V.W.Y.; Soomro, M.; Evangelista, A.C.J. (2018) A review of recycled aggregate in concrete applications (2000–2017). Constr. Build. Mater. 172, 272–292.

Contreras, M.; Teixeira, S.R.; Lucas, M.C.; Lima, L.C.N.; Cardoso, D.S.L.; da Silva, G.A.C.; Gregório, G.C.; de Souza, A.E.; dos Santos, A. (2016) Recycling of construction and demolition waste for producing new construction material (Brazil case-study). Constr. Build. Mater. 123, 594–600.

Paz, D.H.F.; Lafayette, K.P.V. (2016) Forecasting of construction and demolition waste in Brazil. Waste Manag. Res. 34 [8], 708–716.

Cabral, A.E.B.; Schalch, V.; Molin, D.C.C.D.; Ribeiro, J.L.D. (2010) Mechanical Properties Modeling of Recycled Aggregate Concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 24 [4], 421–430.

Moretti, J.P.; Sales, A.; Almeida, F.C.R.; Rezende, M.A.M.; Gromboni, P.P. (2016) Joint use of construction waste (CW) and sugarcane bagasse ash sand (SBAS) in concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 113, 317–323.

Silva, R. V.; De Brito, J.; Dhir, R.K. (2014) Properties and composition of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste suitable for concrete production. Constr. Build. Mater. 65, 201–217.

Andrade, J.J. de O.; Possan, E.; Squiavon, J.Z.; Ortolan, T.L.P. (2018) Evaluation of mechanical properties and carbonation of mortars produced with construction and demolition waste. Constr. Build. Mater. 161, 70–83.

Corinaldesi, V.; Moriconi, G. (2009) Behaviour of cementitious mortars containing different kinds of recycled aggregate. Constr. Build. Mater. 23 [1], 289–294.

Cuenca-Moyano, G.M.; Martín-Morales, M.; Valverde- Palacios, I.; Valverde-Espinosa, I.; Zamorano, M. (2014) Influence of pre-soaked recycled fine aggregate on the properties of masonry mortar. Constr. Build. Mater. 70, 71–79.

Ferro, G.A.; Spoto, C.; Tulliani, J.M.; Restuccia, L. (2015) Mortar Made of Recycled Sand from C&D. Procedia Eng. 109, 240–247.

Le, T.; Rémond, S.; Le Saout, G.; Garcia-Diaz, E. (2016) Fresh behavior of mortar based on recycled sand - Influence of moisture condition. Constr. Build. Mater. 106, 35–42.

Ledesma, E.F.; Jiménez, J.R.; Ayuso, J.; Fernández, J.M.; De Brito, J. (2015) Maximum feasible use of recycled sand from construction and demolition waste for eco-mortar production - Part-I: Ceramic masonry waste. J. Clean. Prod. 87, 692–706.

Martínez, I.; Etxeberria, M.; Pavón, E.; Díaz, N. (2013) A comparative analysis of the properties of recycled and natural aggregate in masonry mortars. Constr. Build. Mater. 49, 384–392.

Restuccia, L.; Spoto, C.; Ferro, G.A.; Tulliani, J. (2016) Recycled Mortars with C&D Waste. Procedia Struct. Integr. 2, 2896–2904.

Saiz Martínez, P.; González Cortina, M.; Fernández Martínez, F.; Rodríguez Sánchez, A. (2016) Comparative study of three types of fine recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW), and their use in masonry mortar fabrication. J. Clean. Prod. 118, 162–169.

Samiei, R.R.; Daniotti, B.; Dotelli, R.P.G. (2015). Properties of cement-lime mortars vs. cement mortars containing recycled concrete aggregates. Constr. Build. Mater. 84, 84–94.

Zhao, Z.; Remond, S.; Damidot, D.; Xu, W. (2015) Influence of fine recycled concrete aggregates on the properties of mortars. Constr. Build. Mater. 81, 179–186.

Moriconi, G.; Corinaldesi, V.; Antonucci, R. (2003) Environmentally-friendly mortars : a way to improve bond between mortar and brick. Mater. Struct. 36 [10], 702–708. 2FBF02479505.pdf

Angulo, S.C.; Ulsen, C.; John, V.M., Kahn, H.; Cincotto, M.A. (2009) Chemical-mineralogical characterization of C&D waste recycled aggregates from São Paulo, Brazil. Waste Manag. 29 [2], 721–730.

Ulsen, C.; Kahn, H.; Hawlitschek, G.; Masini, E.A.; Angulo, S.C.; John, V.M. (2013) Production of recycled sand from construction and demolition waste. Constr. Build. Mater. 40, 1168–1173.

Bravo, M.; De Brito, J.; Pontes, J.; Evangelista, L. (2015) Durability performance of concrete with recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste plants. Constr. Build. Mater. 77, 357–369.

Bravo, M.; De Brito, J.; Pontes, J.; Evangelista, L. (2015) Mechanical performance of concrete made with aggregates from construction and demolition waste recycling plants. J. Clean. Prod. 99, 59–74.

Cabral, A.E.B.; Schalch, V.; Molin, D.C.C.D.; Ribeiro, J.L.D. (2012) Performance estimation for concretes made with recycled aggregates of construction and demolition waste of some Brazilian cities. Mater. Res. 15 [6], 1037– 1046.

Pereira, P.; Evangelista, L.; De Brito, J. (2012) The effect of superplasticizers on the mechanical performance of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregates. Cem. Concr.

Compos. 34 [9], 1044–1052. cemconcomp.2012.06.009

Thomas, C.; Setién, J.; Polanco, J.A.; Alaejos, P.; Sánchez De Juan, M. (2013) Durability of recycled aggregate concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 40, 1054–1065.

Jiménez, J.R.; Ayuso, J.; López, M.; Fernández, J.M.; De Brito, J. (2013) Use of fine recycled aggregates from ceramic waste in masonry mortar manufacturing. Constr. Build. Mater. 40, 679–690.

Lima, P.R.L.; Leite, M.B. (2012) Influence of CDW Recycled Aggregate on Drying Shrinkage of Mortar. Open J. Civ. Eng. 2 [2], 53–57.

Silva, R. V.; De Brito, J.; Dhir, R.K. (2016) Performance of cementitious renderings and masonry mortars containing recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes. Constr. Build. Mater. 105, 400–415.

Corinaldesi, V. (2012) Environmentally-friendly bedding mortars for repair of historical buildings. Constr. Build. Mater. 35, 778–784.

Rodrigues, F.; Evangelista, L.; de Brito, J. (2013) A new method to determine the density and water absorption of fine recycled aggregates. Mater. Res. 16 [5], 1045–1051.

Gayarre, F.L.; Boadella, I.L.; Pérez, C.L.-C.; López, M.S.; Cabo, A.D. (2017) Influence of the ceramic recycled agreggates in the masonry mortars properties. Constr. Build. Mater. 132, 457–461.

Fernández-Ledesma, E.; Jiménez, J.R.; Ayuso, J.; Corinaldesi, V.; Iglesias-Godino, F.J. (2016) A proposal for the maximum use of recycled concrete sand in masonry mortar design. Mater. Construcc. 66 [321], e075

Braga, M.; De Brito, J.; Veiga, R. (2015) Incorporation of fine sanitary ware aggregates in mortars. Constr. Build. Mater. 36, 960–968.

Neno, C.; De Brito, J.; Veiga, R. (2014) Using fine recycled concrete aggregate for mortar production. Mater. Res. 17 [1], 168–177.

Vegas, I.; Ibañez, J.A.; Lisbona, A.; Sáez De Cortazar, A.; Frías, M. (2011) Pre-normative research on the use of mixed recycled aggregates in unbound road sections. Constr. Build. Mater. 25 [5], 2674–2682.

Antiohos, S.; Tsimas, S. (2004) Activation of fly ash cementitious systems in the presence of quicklime: Part I. Compressive strength and pozzolanic reaction rate. Cem. Concr. Res. 34 [5], 769–779.

Vichan, S.; Rachan, R.; Horpibulsuk, S. (2013) Strength and microstructure development in Bangkok clay stabilized with calcium carbide residue and biomass ash. ScienceAsia 39, 186–193.

Tang, S.W.; Cai, X.H.; He, Z.; Shao, H.Y.; Li, Z.J.; Chen, E. (2016) Hydration process of fly ash blended cement pastes by impedance measurement. Constr. Build. Mater. 113, 939–950.

Zhang, Z.; Li, L.; Ma, X.; Wang, H. (2016) Compositional, microstructural and mechanical properties of ambient condition cured alkali-activated cement. Constr. Build. Mater. 113, 237–245.

Yildirim, S.T.; Meyer, C.; Herfellner, S. (2015) Effects of internal curing on the strength, drying shrinkage and freeze – thaw resistance of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregates. Constr. Build. Mater. 91, 288–296.

Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support