Materiales de Construcción, Vol 70, No 339 (2020)

Alkali activation of recycled ceramic aggregates from construction and demolition wastes

N. Gaibor
CTAC, Department of Civil Engineering, Azurém Campus, University of Minho, Portugal

J. Coelho
School of Engineering of the University of Minho, Portugal

D. Leitão
CTAC, Department of Civil Engineering, Azurém Campus, University of Minho, Portugal

T. Miranda
ISISE, Institute for Science and Innovation for Bio-Sustainability (IB-S), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minho, Portugal

P. Tavares
CQ-VR, Centro de Química - Vila Real, Department of Chemistry, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal

N. Cristelo
CQ-VR, Centro de Química - Vila Real, Department of Engineering, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal


Environmental concerns are becoming increasingly more significant worldwide, thus creating the urgent need for new sustainable alternatives in the industrial sector. The present study assesses the fundamental properties of ceramic residue (CR) originated by demolition operations, specifically, the floor and wall tiles and sanitaryware furniture, for further incorporation in the construction sector, namely in alkali-activated binders, mixed with other better-known precursors - fly ash (FA) and ladle furnace slag (LFS). Different CR/FA and CR/LFS weight ratios were considered and analyzed by mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis, which included uniaxial compression strength (UCS) tests, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Energy Dispersive Analyser (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Results obtained showed that the combination of CR and FA or LFS, activated with sodium silicate, produced UCS values higher than 20 MPa and 59 MPa, respectively, after 90 days curing.


Ceramic; Alkali-activated cement; Waste treatment; Mechanical properties; Physical properties

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