Materiales de Construcción, Vol 58, No 289-290 (2008)

Past and future colouring patterns of historic stone buildings


https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2008.v58.i289-290.81

C. M. Grossi
School of Environmental Sciences. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom

P. Brimblecombe
School of Environmental Sciences. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom

Abstract


The patterns of colour on stone buildings change with time. Buildings were blackened by coal soot, but now mostly diesel particles and in future, wind-driven rain may alter the patterns and oxidation of surface organics. Colouring patterns that outline or shadow architectural elements are publicly more acceptable than those that cut across them e.g. rain streaking. Thresholds of acceptability for blackening can be related to soot loading. When soot loading of the ambient air is high, e.g. near busy roads, buildings are dark and typically viewed as unacceptable. However at lower concentrations (2-3 μg m-3 elemental carbon), building appearance is typically seen as more acceptable. The future offers a potential for variation in building colour, arising through different biological growth under changing climates or the presence of different pollutants. In future urban atmospheres more dominated by organic pollutants a yellowing process may be more important. Diesel soot has many organic compounds that can oxidise to brownish-coloured humic-like (HULIS) materials. We illustrate the development of colour patterns on the Cathedral Church of St John the Baptist, Norwich UK from its opening (beginning of the 20th century) to the end of the 21st century derived from historic photographs, observations and predictions for the future appearance. The latter has to consider removal of deposits by changed rainwater flow and enhanced biological activity. Blackening from coal smoke may have reached a peak around 1960s and 1970s, but diesel soot predominates now.

Keywords


Patina; blackening patterns; air pollution; climate change; aesthetics

Full Text:


PDF

References


(1) Brimblecombe, P. The Big Smoke. Methuen, London. 1987

(2) P. T. Newby, T.A. Mansfield, R.S. Hamilton: “Sources and economic implications of building soiling in urban areas”. Science of the Total Environment, 100 (1991), pp. 347–65. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(91)90385-R

(3) Matteini, M.: Le patine. Genesi, significato, conservazione. Workshop organized by M. Matteini. Nardini (ed.) Istituto per la Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali del CNR, 2005.

(4) R.W. Lanting: “Black smoke and soiling”. In: Lee, S. D., Schneider, T., Grant, L. D. & Verkerk, P. J. (eds) Aerosols. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL (1986), pp. 923–932.

(5) C. Davidson, W. Tang, S. Finger, V. Etyemezian, F. Striegel, S. Sherwood: “Soiling patterns on a tall limestone building: Changes over 60 years”. Environmental Science and Technology, 34 (2000), pp. 560–565. doi:10.1021/es990520y

(6) H. A.Viles, A. A. Gorbushina: “Soiling and microbial colonisation on urban roadside limestone: a three year study in Oxford, England”. Building and Environment, 38 (2003), 1217–1224. doi:10.1016/S0360-1323(03)00078-7

(7) M.Thornbush, H.Viles: “Integrated digital photography and image processing for the quantification of colouration on soiled limestone surfaces in Oxford, England”. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 5 (3) (2004), pp. 285-290. doi:10.1016/j.culher.2003.10.004

(8) M.Thornbush, H.Viles: “Changing patterns of soiling and microbial growth on building stone in Oxford, England after implementation of a major traffic scheme”. Science of the Total Environment, 367 (1) (2006), pp. 203-211. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.11.022

(9) A.Bonazza, C. Sabbioni, N. Ghedini, B. Hermosin, V. Jurado, J.M.Gonzalez, C. Saiz-Jimenez:” Did smoke from the Kuwait oil well fires affect Iranian archaeological heritage?”. Environmental Science and Technology, 41 (7) (2007), pp. 2378-2386. doi:10.1021/es062176s

(10) M. Garcia-Vallès, M.Vendrell-Saz, J. Molera, F.Blazquez: “Interaction of rock and atmosphere: Patinas on Mediterranean monuments”. Environmental Geology, 36 (1-2) (1998), pp. 137-149.

(11) S.Valls Del Barrio, M. Garcia-Vallès, T. Pradell, M.Vendrell-Saz: “The red-orange patina developed on a monumental dolostone. Engineering Geology, 63 (1-2) (2002), pp. 31-38.

(12) C. Vázquez-Calvo, M. Álvarez de Buergo, R. Fort: “Overview of recent knowledge of patinas on stone monuments: the Spanish experience”. Geological Society Special Publication, 271 (2007), pp. 295-307.

(13) C.M. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, R.M. Esbert.; F.J. Alonso: “Color changes in architectural limestones from pollution and cleaning”. Color Research and Application, 32 (4) (2007), pp. 320-331. doi:10.1002/col.20322

(14) R. Fort, M.C. López de Azcona, F. Mingarro: Cleaning of stone materials in the Cathedral de Valladolid (Spain). Materiales de Construccion, 50 (2000), pp. 37-50.

(15) M. Gaviño, B. Hermosín, M. Castillejo, M . Ojuda, E Rebollar, V. Vergès-Belmin, W. Nowick, C. Saiz-Jumenez: “Black crusts removal: the effect of stone yellowing and cleaning strategies”. In: Saiz-Jimenez C, editor. Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage. London: AA Balkema (2004). pp 239–245.

(16) S.S. Potgieter-Vermaak, R.H.M. Godoi, R.Van Grieken, J.H, Potgieter, M. Oujja, M. Castillejo: “Micro-structural characterization of black crust and laser cleaning of building stones by micro-Raman and SEM techniques”. Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 61 (11-12) (2005), pp. 2460-2467. doi:10.1016/j.saa.2004.09.010

(17) C. Andrew. “Towards an aesthetic theory of building soiling”: In: Webster, R. G. M. (ed.) Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling and Decay Mechanisms of Stone. Donhead, London (1992), 63–81.

(18) P. Brimblecombe,C.M. Grossi: “Aesthetic thresholds and blackening of stone buildings”. Science of the Total Environment, 349 (2005), pp. 175–189. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.01.009

(19) C.M. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe: “Aesthetics of simulated soiling patterns on architecture”. Environmental Science & Technology, 38 (2004), pp. 3971–3976. doi:10.1021/es0353762

(20) C.M. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe: “Aesthetics and perception of soiling. In: Saiz-Jimenez, C. (ed.) Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam (2004), pp. 199–208.

(21) C.M. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe: “Effect of long-term changes in air pollution and climate on the decay and blackening of European stone buildings”. Geological Society Special Publication, 271 (2007), pp. 117-130.

(22) P.Brimblecombe, C.M. Grossi: “The rate of darkening of material surfaces”. In: Saiz-Jimenez, C. (ed.) Air Pollution and Cultural Heritage. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam (2004), 193–198.

(23) J. Watt: “Quantifying the Effects of Air Pollution on the Soiling of Materials”. Abstracts of the CULT-STRAT Workshop: The Protection of Cultural heritage from Air Pollution”, Paris (2007).

(24) C.M. Grossi, R.M. Esbert, F. Díaz-Pache, F.J. Alonso: “Soiling of building stones in urban environments”. Building and Environment 38 (2003), pp. 147 – 159 doi:10.1016/S0360-1323(02)00017-3

(25) T. Lombardo, A. Ionescu, R.A. Lefèvre, A. Chabas, P. Ausset, H. Cachier: “Soiling of silica-soda-lime float glass in urban environment: Measurements and modelling”: Atmospheric Environment, 39 (6) (2005), pp. 989-997. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.10.030

(26) A. Ionescu, R.A. Lefèvre, A. Chabas, T. Lombardo, P. Ausset, Y. Candau, L. Rosseman : “Modeling of soiling based on silica-soda-lime glass exposure at six European sites”. Science of the Total Environment, 369 (1-3) (2006), pp. 246-255. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.04.009

(27) R.M. Esbert, C.M. Grossi, F.J. Alonso, J. Ordaz, F. Díaz-Pache: Projects CICYT: CC95-SEC0501 and FICYT: PB-REC96-98, Internals Reports. Universidad de Oviedo (1997).

(28) A. Bonazza, P. Brimblecombe, C.M. Grossi, C. Sabbioni: “Carbon in Black Crusts from the Tower of London”. Environmental Science and Technology, 41 (12) (2007), pp. 4199-4204

(29) M. Sillanpaa, A. Frey, R. Hillamo, A.S. Pennanen, R.O. Salonen: “Organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter of six urban environments in Europe”. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5(2005), pp: 2869-2879.

(30) A. Bonazza, C. Sabbioni, N. Ghedini: “Quantitative data on carbon fractions in interpretation of black crusts and soiling on European built heritage”. Atmospheric Environment, 39 (14) (2005), pp. 2607-2618. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.01.040

(31) E. R. Graber, Y. Rudich: Atmospheric HULIS: How humic-like are they? A comprehensive and critical review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(3) (2006), pp. 729–753.

(32) Hering, B.: “Seasonal changes of dominating hues in Landscapes close to nature”. Spoken Version, ICCJ, Budapest (2007).

(33) Rossi, A.: “Norwich Roman Catholic Cathedral. A Building History”. Miscellany 1, The Chapels Society. Oblong Creative Ltd, Wetherbery (1998).

(34) The BRE / British Stone Stone List: http://projects.bre.co.uk/condiv/stonelist/beer.html

(35) A. Green, P. Brimblecombe, C.M. Grossi, P. Judge: “The Colour of Time”. Nuffield Foundation & DR Research of the European Union via SSPI-CT-2003-501837-Noah’s Ark.




Copyright (c) 2008 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us materconstrucc@ietcc.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es