Materiales de Construcción <p><em><strong>Materiales de Construcción</strong></em> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja</a>.</p> <p>It was founded in 1949 at the Technical Institute for Construction and Cement under the heading <em>Últimos avances en materiales de construcción. Boletín de circulación limitada</em> (ISSN 1698-9333). In 1958 was renamed as <em>Materiales de Construcción. Ultimos avances</em> (ISSN 0465-2746) and published with its actual name from 1974. It began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p>It is a scientific Journal published in English, intended for researchers, plant technicians and other professionals engaged in the area of Construction, Materials Science and Technology. Scientific articles focus mainly on:</p> <p>- Physics and chemistry of the formation of cement and other binders.<br />- Cement and concrete. Components (aggregate, admixtures, additions and similar). Behaviour and properties.<br />- Durability and corrosion of other construction materials.<br />- Restoration and conservation of the materials in heritage monuments.<br />- Weathering and the deterioration of construction materials.<br />- Use of industrial waste and by-products in construction.<br />- Manufacture and properties of other construction materials, such as: gypsum/plaster, lime, composite materials, polymers, recycled materials, stone, brick and tile, glass, wood and so forth.</p> <p><strong>Materiales de Construcción</strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR) and <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI) since 2007; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (2 years): <strong>1.619</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (5 years): <strong>2.285</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>49</strong>/66 (Q3, Construction and Building Technology)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>273</strong>/335 (Q4, Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2020: <strong>0.28</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>62</strong>/86 (Q3, Construction and Building Technology)<br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>291</strong>/381 (Q4, Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile </strong>2020: <strong>0.00067</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2020: <strong>0.398</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Material Engineering<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. (Mª del Mar Alonso López) (Soporte Técnico Revistas-CSIC) vie, 31 dic 2021 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 NORM waste, cements, and concretes. A review <p>The use of industrial waste and/or by-products as alternative sources of raw materials in building materials has become standard practice. The result, more sustainable construction, is contributing to the institution of a circular economy. Nonetheless, all necessary precautions must be taken to ensure that the inclusion and use of such materials entail no new health hazard for people or their environment. Due to the processes involved in generating industrial waste/by-products, these alternative or secondary materials may be contaminated with heavy metals, other undesirable chemicals or high levels of natural radioactivity that may constrain their use. In-depth and realistic research on such industrial waste is consequently requisite to its deployment in building materials. This paper reviews the basic concepts associated with radioactivity and natural radioactivity, focusing on industrial waste/by-products comprising Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) used in cement and concrete manufacture. Updated radiological data are furnished on such waste (including plant fly ash, iron and steel mill slag, bauxite and phosphogypsum waste) and on other materials such as limestone, gypsum and so on. The paper also presents recent findings on radionuclide activity concentrations in Portland cements and concretes not bearing NORMs. The role of natural aggregate in end concrete radiological behaviour is broached. The radiological behaviour of alternative non-portland cements and concretes, such as alkali-activated materials and geopolymers, is also addressed.</p> F. Puertas, J. A. Suárez-Navarro, M. M. Alonso, C. Gascó Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mar, 24 ago 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Evaluation of the influence of the degree of saturation, measuring time and use of a conductive paste on the determination of thermal conductivity of normal and lightweight concrete using the hot-wire method <p>The determination of thermal conductivity of cement-based materials is relevant from the perspective of buildings’ energy efficiency. The absence of unified tests for its measurement in mortars and concrete results in a heterogeneity of the data available in the literature. This work’s purpose is to determine the relevant influence from a a statistical viewpoint that three factors; degree of saturation, measuring time and use of a conductive paste, have in the measurement of the conductivity using the hot-wire needle probe method in two concretes with different thermal behavior: standard-weight concrete and lightweight concrete. The results obtained allow for the establishment of recommendations for future researchers on the minimum information to be included in their reports of thermal conductivity of cement-based materials by the needle probe method, the need to treat outliers, the most favorable saturation conditions and measuring times, as well as the possible benefits of using conductive pastes.</p> D. Revuelta, J.L. García-Calvo, P. Carballosa, F. Pedrosa Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mar, 24 ago 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Optimising processing conditions for the functionalisation of photocatalytic glazes by ZnO nanoparticle deposition <p>ZnO nanospheres were synthesised and then deposited by both single- and double-fire fast processes on as-prepared ceramic substrates. The photocatalytic degradation of resazurin ink was tested under UV light. The single-fired samples did not show any evidence of photocatalytic activity because the nanoparticles melted during sintering at 1210°C. The double-fire ZnO spray-coating method successfully produced glazed materials with an active ZnO surface layer despite the high sintering temperature. The influence of experimental parameters, including the ZnO nanoparticle loading (0.03 to 1 mg/cm<sup>2</sup>) and firing temperature (650 to 800°C), were also investigated. Samples with a ZnO loading of 1 g/cm<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;fired at 650°C showed the best photocatalytic activity. Increasing the temperature to 700 and 800°C led to the coalescence of ZnO nanoparticles, which reduced the photocatalytic activity.</p> H.R. Guzmán-Carrillo, E. Jiménez Relinque, A. Manzano-Ramírez, M. Castellote, M. Romero-Pérez Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 24 sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Characterisation and diagnosis of heritage concrete: case studies at the Eduardo Torroja Institute, Madrid, Spain <p>That the preservation of twentieth concrete heritage is an area scantly explored can be attributed to a lack of appreciation for such a young material. In most cases conservation is broached from a technical perspective with little regard for heritage value. Ongoing assessment of the condition of structures is the primary strategy to minimise such misguided action. This study involved characterising the condition of the concrete in a number of singular elements forming part of the Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science headquarters at Madrid, Spain, a modernist compound listed by the city of Madrid as a protected asset. The in situ findings using non-destructive and laboratory techniques revealed the core concrete to be in good condition. The surface material, however, exhibits signs of durability issues calling for conservation treatments and techniques compatible with the preservation of the integrity and authenticity of this young heritage material.</p> P.M. Carmona-Quiroga, A. Pachón-Montaño, J. Queipo-de-Llano, J.A. Martín-Caro, D. López, I. Paniagua, I. Martínez, F. Rubiano, I. García-Lodeiro, L. Fernández-Ordóñez, M.T. Blanco-Varela, E. Frías-López Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) jue, 11 nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Study of the alkali-silica reaction rate of Spanish aggregates. Proposal of a classification based in accelerated mortar bars tests and petrographic parameters <p>The alkali-silica reaction has been studied in depth due to the evolution in the knowledge of the expansive phenomenon. One of its most important aspects is the reaction rate of the aggregates. In Spain, at the early 90s of the 20th century, aggregates were considered almost non-reactive. However, the use of accelerated curing and other environmental factors revealed that there were potentially reactive siliceous aggregates. Nevertheless, there are several siliceous and limestone aggregates with siliceous inclusions that show reactivity over long period. In the present work, open porosity, expansion and petrography with quartz reactivity index have been determined, in 68 siliceous, limestone and dolomitic aggregates, from quarries located in areas with diagnostic reactivity. Based on these parameters and their interrelation, a classification method is proposed to detect slow-reacting aggregates.</p> E. Menéndez, R. García-Roves, B. Aldea, E. Puerto, H. Recino Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 01 dic 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Durability of UHPFRC functionalised with nanoadditives due to synergies in the action of sulphate and chloride in cracked and uncracked states <p>This paper studies the durability of Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) with high Blast Furnace Slag content (BFS) and nanoadditives such as crystalline admixture (CA), alumina nanofibres (ANF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), exposed to different aggressive environmental conditions: 1) three aggressive media: a) deionized water (dw), b) sulphate rich solution (ss) and c) simulated geothermal water (sgw) containing sulphate and chloride; 2) two water interaction conditions: a) static and b) dynamic (water impact); and 3) with and without the presence of cracks. Durability was analysed over 24 months, measuring several physical and chemical parameters of the system, recording changes in both the aggressive media and the concrete. All UHPFRC types demonstrate good durability, showing high resistance to expansion and deformation in the sulphate-rich media. A leaching process occurs in all water interaction systems, the dynamic interaction in sgw being the most aggressive. The interaction of sgw inside the crack favours the formation of solid phases such as calcium carbonates and ettringite, while the presence of nanoadditives affects the response of both the matrix and the formation of precipitates within the crack.</p> M. Giménez, M.C. Alonso, E. Menéndez, M. Criado Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 01 dic 2021 00:00:00 +0100 On-site corrosion monitoring experience in concrete structures: potential improvements on the current-controlled polarization resistance method <p>The need for proactive maintenance of reinforced concrete structures with non-destructive testing (NDT) is less disputable today than ever. One of the most promising strategies in this regard is the in-situ measurement of the reinforcement corrosion rate. This study explored the reliability of modulated current confinement method (hereafter MCC) based on a review of in-situ measurements made with that technique in real-life structures over a 13-year period. The most prominent problems detected included defective confinement of the polarization current in low-resistivity environments and over-polarization of passive reinforcement. The findings, which showed enhancement of MCC reliability to depend on improving the electrochemical current regulation and control methodologies presently in place, are being applied to improve the design of the next generation of corrosion meters.</p> J. E. Ramón, Á. Castillo, I. Martínez Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 15 oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Experimental analysis and design strength models adopted by international guides for FRP-confined concrete columns subjected to axial compression <p>Carbon fiber jacketing is an efficient technique for increasing the strength and strain capacity of concrete circular and square section columns subjected to axial load, although confinement efficiency decreases for rectangular cross-section members. The research project BIA 2016-80310-P includes an experimental program on intermediate-size plain concrete specimens strengthened with carbon fiber jackets, mostly with square and rectangular cross-sections. The results, alongside others with similar characteristics from two databases published, are compared to predictions of four international guides. The incidence of the key parameters in the experimental results is analyzed, such as the aspect ratio of the section, the effective strain in FRP jacket attained at failure or the rounded corner radius. As a result, two efficiency strain factors are proposed, one for circular and another for rectangular specimens. The predictions contained in certain guides, based on a simple linear design-model, are improved by using the proposed efficiency strain factor for rectangular sections.</p> J.P. Gutiérrez, S. Martínez, A. de Diego, V.J. Castro, L. Echevarría Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 12 nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Printability of materials for extrusion 3D printing technologies: a review of material requirements and testing <p>One of the major challenges facing 3D printing for construction is the technological suitability, ‘printability’, of the materials used. These cement-based materials differ from those used in other sectors, which has a series of conditioning factors that are the object of the present analysis. This article first reviews the definition of the term ‘printability’ and its constituent stages. Those stages condition the requirements to be met by cement-based materials, whether designed for other uses or developed ad hoc, and therefore the tests applicable to determine their aptitude for use in additive manufacturing for construction. That is followed by a review of the standardised tests presently in place for mortars and concretes that can be used to verify a material’s compliance with such requirements. The paper concludes with a recommendation on the advisability of developing a standard test or suite of tests to ascertain printability.</p> G. Sotorrío, J. Alonso, N.O.E. Olsson, J.A. Tenorio Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 01 dic 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Bibliometric analysis of the journal Materiales de Construcción: 2013-2020 <p>The objective of this study was to carry out an analysis of different bibliometric indicators of the journal&nbsp;<em>Materiales de Construcción</em>&nbsp;to verify the development of its scientific production between the years 2013 and 2020. The authors and their work institutions were analysed to check their productivity and degree of collaboration achieved, the levels of citation obtained in four impact indicators (Journal Impact Factor, 5-Year Impact Factor, Scimago Journal Rank and CiteScore) and the members of the editorial team of the journal to verify their permanence. The results show a high rate of collaboration between authors but somewhat scarce if considered by their work institutions, a significant increase in all the impact indicators consulted, and a reduction in the number of members of the editorial team. It is concluded that&nbsp;<em>Materiales de Construcción</em>&nbsp;journal has increased its internationality and considerably improved its impact between 2013 and 2020.</p> G. Mochón-Bezares, Á. Sorli-Rojo Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 27 oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Materiales de Construcción: 70th anniversary issue Pura Fernández Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 12 nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Eduardo Torroja Institute of the CSIC and the journal Materiales de Construcción, 70 years of a successful symbiosis Angel Castillo, Isabel Martínez Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 19 nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Materiales de Construcción: the first 70 wonderful years Francisca Puertas Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) mié, 27 oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Materiales de Construcción on its 70th anniversary: state-of-play and future challenges Mar Alonso Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) vie, 19 nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100