Materiales de Construcción, Vol 61, No 302 (2011)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits

M. A. Sanjuán
Instituto Español del Cemento y sus Aplicaciones (IECA), Spain

A. Piñeiro
Instituto Español del Cemento y sus Aplicaciones (IECA), Spain

O. Rodríguez
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Spain


Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the disscusion in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix.
Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience.


k-value; ground granulated blast-furnace slag; concrete; EN 206-1; durability

Full Text:



(1) EN 206-1:2000. Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity. CEN/TC 104. + Resolutions of the CEN/TC 104/SC 1 (Delft 2010-09-15/16).

(2) EHE-2008. Instrucción de Hormigón Estructural. Real Decreto 1247/2008, de 18 de julio, por el que se aprueba la instrucción de hormigón estructural (EHE-08). © Ministerio de Fomento. Spain.

(3) Gruyaert, E.: “Hydration heat and strength development of concrete containing blast-furnace slag”, Ghent University, Belgium.

(4) Iyoda, T.; Dan, Y.; Sagawa, Y.; Hamada, H.: “The effect of curing period on the durability of concrete using blast-furnace slag blended cement”. The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008.

(5) Aldea, C. A.; Young, F.; Wang, K.; Shah, S. P.: “Effects of curing conditions on properties of concrete using slag replacement”, Cem. Concr. Res., Volume 30, Issue 3, March 2000, pp. 465-472.

(6) Atis,, C. D.; Bilim, C.: “Wet and dry cured compressive strength of concrete containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag”, Building and Environment, volume 42, Issue 8, August 2007, pp. 3060-3065.

(7) Ballim, Y.: “Curing and the durability of opc, fly ash and blast-furnace slag concretes”. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, May 1993, vol. 26, nº. 158, pp 238-244.

(8) Bouikn, I. A.; Swamy, R. N.; Bali, A.: “Durability properties of concrete containing 50% and 65% slag”. Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 2836–2845.

(9) Collepardi, M.; Collepardi, S.; Ogoumah Olagot, J. J.; Simonelli, F.: “The influence of slag and fly ash on the carbonation of concrete”. Eighth CANMET/ACI Int. Conf. on fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete. Proccedings ACI SP-221-29. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 2004. 23-29 de mayo de 2004, pp. 483-493.

(10) Litvan, G. G.; Meyer, A.: “Carbonation of granulated blast furnace slag cementconcrete Turing twenty years of field exposure”. Second Int. Conf. On fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete. Proccedings ACI SP-91, Madrid, Spain, 1986, pp. 1445-1462.

(11) Sisomphon, K.; Franke, L.: “Carbonation rates of concretes containing high volume of pozzolanic materials”. Cem. Concr. Res., 37 (2007) 1647–1653.

(12) Utgenannt, P.; Luping, T.: CBI - Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Experience from field exposure in marine and highway environment - Frost resistance, chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion. 10 years of frost experience at 3 Swedish field exposure sites. Peter Utgenannt (Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, CBI). Erika Holt, Hannele Kuosa, Markku Leivo & Erkki Vesikari. DuraInt-Project Workshop. Effect of interacted deterioration parameters on service life of concrete structures in cold environments. VTT WORKING PAPERS 116. ISBN 978-951-38-7177-2. March 2009. 32 p. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland.

(13) Giergiczny, Z.; Glinicki, M. A.; Sokol/owski, M.; Zielinski, M.: “Air void system and frost-salt scaling of concrete containing slagblended cement”. Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 2451–2456.

(14) Wu, C. H.; Yen, T.; Liu, Y. W.; Hsu, T. H.: “The abrasion erosion resistance of concrete containing blast furnace slag”.

(15) Härdtl, R. T.: “The application of the k-value concept to ground granulated blast furnace slag”. Cement International, 6/2010. vol. 8., pp. 66-73.

Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support