A review on alkaline activation: new analytical perspectives


  • A. Palomo Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja IETcc–CSIC
  • P. Krivenko Kiev National University of Civil Engineering and Architecture
  • I. Garcia-Lodeiro Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja IETcc–CSIC
  • E. Kavalerova Kiev National University of Civil Engineering and Architecture
  • O. Maltseva Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja IETcc–CSIC
  • A. Fernández-Jiménez Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja IETcc–CSIC




Alkali activation, Aluminosilicates, Cements, C‑S‑H gel, N‑A‑S‑H gel, Geopolymers, Hybrid binder


For many years now the idea of including alkalis in a Portland cement matrix has been regarded as a daft or inexcusably erroneous proposition: despite its absurdity, that opinion has been widely accepted as a basic premise by the scientific and technical community working in the area of the chemistry of cement. In 1957 Glukhovsky proposed a working hypothesis in which he established a close relationship between alkalis and cementitious materials. That hypothesis has become consolidated and has served as a basis for developing a new type of binders, initially called “alkaline cements”. The present paper reviews the most significant theoretical interpretations of the role played by alkalis in the formation of the “stony” structure of cement. It ends with a broad overview of the versatility of this type of materials for industrial applications and a discussion of the possibility of building on the existing legislation to meet the need for the future regulation of alkaline cement and concrete manufacture.


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How to Cite

Palomo, A., Krivenko, P., Garcia-Lodeiro, I., Kavalerova, E., Maltseva, O., & Fernández-Jiménez, A. (2014). A review on alkaline activation: new analytical perspectives. Materiales De Construcción, 64(315), e022. https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2014.00314



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