A study on industrial-scale waste utilization in construction material production: the use of fly ash in GRP composite pipe
Keywords:Composite, Fly ash, Polymer, Durability, Mechanical properties
This study presents a new approach to the utilization of industrial by-products in construction materials by using fly ash (FA) in the production of glass fiber-reinforced polyester (GRP) pipe. The FA was substituted by 10% and 20% (by weight of sand) in the mixtures to produce GRP pipes of 350 mm in diameter and 6 m in length for testing. Stiffness modulus (SM), axial tensile strength (ATS), and hoop tensile strength (HTS) tests were conducted on the produced GRP pipes and their elasticity modulus (EM) values were also calculated. To observe the microstructure of the GRP pipes and the interfacial transition zone of the layers, SEM and microscopic analyses were performed. Furthermore, a strain-corrosion test was conducted to obtain information about long term-performance of samples. The results showed that the FA-filled GRP pipes were found to meet the requirements of the related standards, and that the use of FA in the GRP pipe industry may be an important alternative approach to the utilization of industrial wastes via effective recycling mechanisms.
Ahmaruzzaman, M. (2010) A review on the utilization of fly ash. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36 , 327-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2009.11.003
Dindi, A.; Quang, D.V.; Vega, L.F.; Nashef, E.; Abu-Zahra, M.R.M. (2019) Applications of fly ash for CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. J. CO2 Util. 29, 82-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcou.2018.11.011
Basu, M.; Pande, M.; Bhadoria, P.B.S.; Mahapatra, S.C. (2009) Potential fly-ash utilization in agriculture: A global review. Prog. Nat. Sci. 19 , 1173-1186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2008.12.006
Xie, J.; Wang, J.; Rao, R.; Wang, C.; Fang, C. (2019) Effects of combined usage of GGBS and fly ash on workability and mechanical properties of alkali activated geopolymer concrete with recycled aggregate. Compos. Part B. Engineer. 164, 179-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.11.067
Bicer, A. (2018) Effect of fly ash particle size on thermal and mechanical properties of fly ash-cement composites. Therm. Sci. Eng. Prog. 8, 78-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsep.2018.07.014
Cheng, Q.; Yao, K.; Liu, Y. (2018) Stress-dependent behavior of marine clay admixed with fly-ash-blended cement. Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 11 , 611-616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2018.01.004
Martin, L.H.J.; Winnefeld, F.; Tschopp, E.; Müller, C.J.; Lothenbach, B. (2017) Influence of fly ash on the hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement. Cem. Concr. Res. 95, 152-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.02.030
Güllü, H.; Cevik, A.; Al-Ezzi, K.M.A.; Gülsan, M.E. (2019) On the rheology of using geopolymer for grouting: A comparative study with cement-based grout included fly ash and cold bonded fly ash. Constr. Build. Mater. 196, 594-610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.11.140
Duan, S.; Liao, H.; Ma, Z.; Cheng, F.; Fang, L.; Gao, H.; Yang, H. (2018) The relevance of ultrafine fly ash properties and mechanical properties in its fly ash-cement gelation blocks via static pressure forming. Constr. Build. Mater. 186, 1064-1071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.08.035
Ren, X.; Sancaktar, E. (2019) Use of fly ash as eco-friendly filler in synthetic rubber for tire applications. J. Clean. Prod. 206, 374-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.202
Zhang, H.; Shen, C.; Xi, P.; Chen, K.; Zhang, F.; Wang, S. (2018) Study on flexural properties of active magnesia carbonation concrete with fly ash content. Constr. Build. Mater. 187, 884-891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.08.017
Sun, Z.; Vollpracht, A. (2019) One year geopolymerisation of sodium silicate activated fly ash and metakaolin geopolymers. Cem. Concr. Compos. 95, 98-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2018.10.014
Wang, W.; Lu, C. (2018) Time-varying law of rebar corrosion rate in fly ash concrete. J. Hazard. Mater. 360, 520-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.08.007 PMid:30145478
Hadi, M.N.S.; Al-Azzawi, M.; Yu, T. (2018) Effects of fly ash characteristics and alkaline activator components on compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer mortar. Constr. Build. Mater. 175, 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.092
Hefni, Y.; El Zaher, Y.A.; Wahab, M.A. (2018) Influence of activation of fly ash on the mechanical properties of concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 172, 728-734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.021
Bahedh, M.A.; Jaafar, M.S. (2018) Ultra high-performance concrete utilizing fly ash as cement replacement under autoclaving technique. Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 9, e00202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2018.e00202
Gökçe, H.S.; Hatungimana, D.; Ramyar, K. (2019) Effect of fly ash and silica fume on hardened properties of foam concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 194, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.11.036
Uysal, M.; Akyuncu, V.; Tanyildizi, H.; Sumer, M.; Yildirim, H. (2018) Optimization of durability properties of concrete containing fly ash using Taguchi's approach and Anova analysis. Rev. Construcc. 17 , 364-382. https://doi.org/10.7764/RDLC.17.3.364
Atis, C.D.; Bilim, C.; Ozcan, F.; Akcaozoglu, K.; Sevim, U.K. (2002) The use of a non-standard high calcium fly ash in concrete and its response to accelerated curing. Mater. Construcc. 52 , 5-17. https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2002.v52.i267.322
Irassar, E.F.; Batic, O.R. (1989) Sulfate resistance of ordinary Portland cement with fly ash. Mater. Construcc. 39 , 11-20. https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.1989.v39.i213.813. https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.1989.v39.i213.813
Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Palomo, A.; Criado, M. (2006) Alkali activated fly ash binders. A comparative study between sodium and potassium activators. Mater. Construcc. 56 , 51-65.
Woszuk, A.; Bandura, L.; Franus, W. (2019) Fly ash as low cost and environmentally friendly filler and its effect on the properties of mix asphalt. J. Clean. Prod. 235, 493-502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.06.353
Yan, K.; Li, L.; Zheng, K.; Ge, D. (2019) Research on properties of bitumen mortar containing municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Constr. Build. Mater. 218, 657-666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.05.151
Zacco, A.; Borgese, L.; Gianoncelli, A.; Struis, R.P.W.J.; Depero, L.E.; Bontempi, E. (2014) Review of fly ash inertisation treatments and recycling. Environ. Chem. Lett. 12, 153-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-014-0454-6
Mazzoli, A.; Moriconi, G. (2014) Particle size, size distribution and morphological evaluation of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) industrial by-product. Micron. 67, 169-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2014.07.007 PMid:25195092
Colombo, C.; Vergani, L. (2018) Optimization of filament winding parameters for the design of a composite pipe. Compos. Part B. Engineer. 148, 207-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.04.056
Tittarelli, F.; Moriconi, G. (2010) Use of GRP industrial by-products in cement based composites. Cem. Concr. Compos. 32 , 219-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.11.005
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.