New methods for assessing brick resistance to freeze-thaw cycles
Keywords:Brick, Freezing/Thawing, Reliable classifiers of brick resistance, ROC Analysis
The aim of this research is to analyse the reliability of the existing methods, and find new ones, for assessing brick resistance to freeze-thaw cycles. A series of bricks were tested against a range of properties; compressive strength ratios pre- to post-freezing and Maage’s factor, were calculated. Using a database created in this way, an analysis of existing classifiers was carried out and new ones were established based on which bricks could be classified into resistant and non-resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. The median pore radius, the ratio of compressive strengths pre- to post-freezing and the water desorption coefficient at 180-360 minutes proved to be good classifiers with a clearly specified cut-off for the distinction between resistant and non-resistant bricks with an acceptable risk of a wrong decision. The ratio of compressive strengths pre to post freezing and the water desorption coefficient at 180-360 minutes were described using the pore system in the brick.
EN 771-1:2011+A1:2015 Specification for masonry units - Part 1: Clay masonry units.
EN 772-22:2018 Methods of test for masonry units - Part 22: Determination of freeze/thaw resistance of clay masonry units.
Straube, J.; Schumacher, C.; Mensinga, P. (2010) CP-1013: Assessing the freeze-thaw resistance of clay brick for interior insulation retrofit project. Building Science Corporation. Retrieved from https://www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-1013-freeze-thaw-resistance-clay-brick-interior-insulation-retrofits.
Mensinga, P. (2009) Determining the critical degree of saturation of brick using frost dilatometry. A thesis at University of Waterloo. Waterloo, Canada (2009). Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10012/4638.
Kung, J.H. (1985) Frost durability of canadian clay bricks. Proceedings of the 7th International Brick Masonry Conference, Melbourne, Australia., 245-251. Retrieved from https://nrc-publications.canada.ca/eng/view/ft/?id=85a8f3ac-6e9e-43a4-aad1-51c6288e929b.
Hansen, W.; Kung, J.H. (1988) Pore structure and frost durability of clay bricks. Mater Struct. 21, 443-447. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02472325
Perrin, B.; Vu, N.A.; Multon, S.; Voland, T.; Ducroquetz, C. (2011) Mechanical behaviour of fired clay materials subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. Constr Build Mater. 25, 1056-1064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.06.072
Elert, K.; Culturone, G.; Rodríguez, C.; Pardo, E.S. (2003) Durability of bricks used in the conservation of historic buildings-influence of composition and microstructure. J. Cult. Herit. 4, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1296-2074(03)00020-7
Bracka, A.; Rusin, Z. (2012) Comparison of pore characteristics and water absorption in ceramics materials with frost resistance factor, Fc. Struc. Environ. 3, 15-19. Retrieved from http://sae.tu.kielce.pl/12/S&E_NR_12_Art_3.pdf.
Korenska, M.; Chobola, Z.; Sokolar R. (2006) Frequency inspection as an assessment tool for the frost resistance of fired roof tiles. Ceram. Silik. 50, 185-192. Retrieved from https://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/cs_content/2006/Korenska_CS_2006_0000.pdf.
Koroth, S.R. (1997) Evaluation and improvement of frost durability of clay bricks. A thesis in The Centre for Building Studies. Ottawa, Canada (1997). Retrieved from https://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/282/.
Šveda, M.; Sokolar, R. (2004) The effect of firing temperature on the irreversible expansion, water absorption and pore structure of a brick body during freeze-thaw cycles. Mater. Sci. 19, 465-470. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2741
Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Ceroni, C.; Guarini, G. (2008) Durability of clay roofing tiles: assessing the reliability of prediction models. 11DBMC International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components. Istanbul, Turkey. Retrieved from https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB13184.pdf.
Netinger, I.; Vračević, M.; Ranogajec, J.; Vučetić, S. (2020) Influence of pore-size distribution on the resistance of brick to freeze-thaw cycles. Materials. 13 , 2364. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102364 PMid:32455598 PMCid:PMC7288054
Netinger, I.; Vračević, M.; Ducman, V.; Marković, B.; Szenti, I.; Kukocz, A. (2020) Influence of the size and type of pores on brick resistance to freeze-thaw cycles. Materials. 13 , 3717. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173717 PMid:32842686 PMCid:PMC7503822
HRN B.D8.011:1987 Glinene opeke, blokovi i ploče - metode ispitivanja, točka 9. Provjeravanje postojanosti prema mrazu. Croatian Standards Institute. Zagreb, Croatia.
EN 772-1:2011+A1:2015 Methods of test for masonry units - Part 1: Determination of compressive strength.
EN 772-21:2011 Methods of test for masonry units - Part 21: Determination of water absorption of clay and calcium silicate masonry units by cold water absorption.
EN 772-7:1998 Methods of test for masonry units - Part 7: Determination of water absorption of clay masonry damp proof course units by boiling in water.
EN 772-11:2011 Methods of test for masonry units -Part 11: Determination of water absorption of aggregate concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, manufactured stone and natural stone masonry units due to capillary action and the initial rate of water absorption of clay masonry units.
Fawcett, T. (2006) An introduction to ROC analysis. Pattern Recognit. Lett. 27, 861-874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patrec.2005.10.010
Sheskin, D.J. (2000) Handbook of parametric and nonparametric statistical procedures. Second Edition, Chapman & Hall/CRC, United States of America (2000). Retrieved from https://fmipa.umri.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/David_J._Sheskin_David_Sheskin_Handbook_of_ParaBookFi.org_.pdf.
Vračević, M.; Ranogajec, J.; Vučetić S.; Netinger, I. (2014) Evaluation of brick resistance to freeze/thaw cycles according to indirect procedures. Građevinar. 66, 197-209.
Pouillot, R.; Delignette-Muller, M.L. (2010) Evaluating variability and uncertainty in microbial quantitative risk assessment using two R packages. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 142, 330-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.07.011 PMid:20674055
Sing, T.; Sander, O.; Beerenwinkel, N.; Lengauer, T. (2005) ROCR: visualizing classifier performance in R. Bioinformatics. 21 , 3940-3941. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bti623 PMid:16096348
Raimondo, M.; Ceroni, C.; Dondi, M.; Guarini, G.; Marsigli, M.; Venturi, I.; Zanelli, C. (2009) Durability of clay roofing tiles: the influence of microstructural and compositional variables. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29 , 3121-3128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2009.06.004
Fox, J.; Weisberg, S. (2019) An R companion to applied regression. Third Edition. Sage, Thousand Oaks CA (2019).
Davison, A.C.; Hinkley, D.V. (1997) Bootstrap methods and their applications. Cambridge series in statistical and probabilistic mathematics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1997).
Canty, A.; Ripley, B.D. (2019) Boot: Bootstrap R (S-plus) functions. R package version 1.3-24, (2019).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.
Hrvatska Zaklada za Znanost
Grant numbers IP-2016-06-6545