New insights into the production of sustainable synthetic aggregates and their microstructural evaluation
Keywords:Synthetic aggregates, Taguchi method, Blast furnace slag, Natural aggregates, Quaternary binders, Sustainability
In this study, a novel technique for producing synthetic aggregates using industrial by-products was experimentally investigated. Taguchi method is used to identify the optimum mix design proportion to develop durable synthetic aggregates. For this, different combinations of quaternary binders including ordinary Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, metakaolin, and lime powder was used. The obtained results revealed that the synthetic aggregates prepared with optimized mortar mix enhanced the compressive strength by 5.9%. Then the performance of synthetic aggregates was evaluated based on their mechanical and durability properties. Microstructural properties of the produced aggregates were examined. The results showed that optimum mix is highly effective than control mix. The manufactured synthetic aggregates are in accordance with the ASTM C 330 standard requirements. Therefore, our study contributes to the advancement in the sustainability by developing a method for producing synthetic aggregates from industrial byproducts.
Kisku, N.; Joshi, H.; Ansari, M.; Panda, S.K.; Nayak, S.; Dutta, S.C. (2017) A critical review and assessment for usage of recycled aggregate as sustainable construction material. Constr. Build. Mater. 131, 721-740.
Chu, S.H.; Jiang, Y.; Kwan, A.K.H. (2019) Effect of rigid fibres on aggregate packing. Constr. Build. Mater. 224, 326-335.
Tuan, B.L.A.; Hwang, C.L.; Lin, K.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Young, M.P. (2013) Development of lightweight aggregate from sewage sludge and waste glass powder for concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 47, 334-339.
González-Corrochano, B.; Alonso-Azcárate, J.; Rodas, M.; Barrenechea, J.F.; Luque, F.J. (2011) Microstructure and mineralogy of lightweight aggregates manufactured from mining and industrial wastes. Constr. Build. Mater. 25 , 3591-3602.
Muduli, R.; Mukharjee, B.B. (2020) Performance assessment of concrete incorporating recycled coarse aggregates and metakaolin: A systematic approach. Constr. Build. Mater. 233, 117223.
Tian, K.; Wang, Y.; Hong, S.; Zhang, J.; Hou, D.; Dong, B.; Xing, F. (2021) Alkali-activated artificial aggregates fabricated by red mud and fly ash: Performance and microstructure. Constr. Build. Mater. 281, 122552.
Rashad, A.M. (2018) Lightweight expanded clay aggregate as a building material - An overview. Constr. Build. Mater. 170, 757-775.
Alqahtani, F.K.; Rashid, K.; Zafar, I.; Iqbal Khan, M. (2021) Assessment of morphological characteristics and physico-mechanical properties of geopolymer green foam lightweight aggregate formulated by microwave irradiation. J. Build. Eng. 35, 102081.
Nadesan, M.S.; Dinakar, P. (2017) Structural concrete using sintered flyash lightweight aggregate: A review. Constr. Build. Mater. 154, 928-944.
Zafar, I.; Rashid, K.; Ju, M. (2021) Synthesis and characterization of lightweight aggregates through geopolymerization and microwave irradiation curing. J. Build. Eng. 42, 102454.
Pekgöz, M.; Tekin, İ. (2021) Microstructural investigation and strength properties of structural lightweight concrete produced with Zeolitic tuff aggregate. J. Build. Eng. 43. 102863
Narattha, C.; Chaipanich, A. (2018) Phase characterizations, physical properties and strength of environment-friendly cold-bonded fly ash lightweight aggregates. J. Clean. Prod. 171, 1094-1100.
Rehman, M.U.; Rashid, K.; Haq, E. U.; Hussain, M.; Shehzad, N. (2020) Physico-mechanical performance and durability of artificial lightweight aggregates synthesized by cementing and geopolymerization. Constr. Build. Mater. 232, 117290.
Rehman, M.U.; Rashid, K.; Zafar, I.; Alqahtani, F.K.; Khan, M.I. (2020) Formulation and characterization of geopolymer and conventional lightweight green concrete by incorporating synthetic lightweight aggregate. J. Build. Eng. 31. 101363.
Morsy, M.S.; Alsayed, S.H.; Salloum, Y.A. (2012) Development of eco-friendly binder using metakaolin-fly ash-lime-anhydrous gypsum. Constr. Build. Mater. 35, 772-777.
Mabeyo, P.E.; Ibrahim, Y.S.; Gu, J. (2020) Effect of high metakaolin content on compressive and shear-bond strengths of oil well cement at 80 °C. Constr. Build. Mater. 240, 117962.
Kalaivani, M.; Shyamala, G.; Ramesh, S.; Angusenthil, K.; Jagadeesan, R. (2020) Performance evaluation of fly ash/slag based geopolymer concrete beams with addition of lime. Mater. Today Proc. 27 , 652-656.
González-Corrochano, B.; Alonso-Azcárate, J.; Rodas, M. (2009) Production of lightweight aggregates from mining and industrial wastes. J. Environ. Manage. 90 , 2801-2812.
Rahim, A.; Sharma, U.K.; Murugesan, K.; Sharma, A.; Arora, P. (2013) Multi-response optimization of post-fire residual compressive strength of high performance concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 38, 265-273.
20. Sevinç, A.H.; Durgun, M.Y.; Eken, M. (2017) A Taguchi approach for investigating the engineering properties of concretes incorporating barite, colemanite, basaltic pumice and ground blast furnace slag. Constr. Build. Mater. 135, 343-351.
Dave, S. V.; Bhogayata, A.; Arora, N.K. (2021) Mix design optimization for fresh, strength and durability properties of ambient cured alkali activated composite by Taguchi method. Constr. Build. Mater. 284, 122822.
Shivaprasad, K.N.; Das, B.B. (2018) Determination of optimized geopolymerization factors on the properties of pelletized fly ash aggregates. Constr. Build. Mater. 163, 428-437.
Panagiotopoulou, C.; Tsivilis, S.; Kakali, G. (2015) Application of the Taguchi approach for the composition optimization of alkali activated fly ash binders. Constr. Build. Mater. 91, 17-22.
Teimortashlu, E.; Dehestani, M.; Jalal, M. (2018) Application of Taguchi method for compressive strength optimization of tertiary blended self-compacting mortar. Constr. Build. Mater. 190, 1182-1191.
ASTM C150. (2001) Standard specification for Portland cement. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.
ASTM C989. (2005) Standard specification for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for use in concrete and mortars. ASTM Int. 2-6.
ASTM C 618. (2014) Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete, ASTM Int. 1-5.
Belarmin Xavier, C.S.; Abdul Rahim, A. (2023) Optimization and characterization of the ternary blended iron rich natural binder concrete system. Constr. Build. Mater. 363, 129838.
Guo, L.; Wang, W.; Zhong, L.; Guo, L.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.; Guo, Y.; Chen, P. (2022) Influence of composite admixtures on the freezing resistance and pore structure characteristics of cemented sand and gravel. Mater. Construcc. 72 , e290
Tan, Ö.; Zaimoglu, A.S. (2007) Optimization of compressive strength in admixture-reinforced cement-based grouts. Mater. Construcc. 57 , 91-98.
ASTM C305. (2011) Standard practice for mechanical mixing of hydraulic cement pastes and mortars of plastic consistency. ASTM Int. 1-3.
ASTM C330.(2009) Standard specification for lightweight aggregates for structural concrete. Annual book of ASTM Standards.
ASTM C127-15. (2015) Standard test method for relative density (specific gravity) and absorption of coarse aggregate. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.
BS 812-110. (1990) Testing aggregates. BS 812 Part 110.
IS 5640 (1970) Method of test for determining aggregate impact value of soft coarse aggregates.
BS 812-112. (1990) Testing aggregates. BS 812 Part 112.
IS 2386. (2016) Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, Part IV : mechanical properties. Bur. Indian Stand.
IS:2386. (1963) Methods of test for aggregates for concrete. Bur. Indian Stand. 5, 1-14.
ASTM C109/C109M-02. (2020) Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars. ASTM Int. 04, 9.
Vignesh, R.; Abdul Rahim, A. (2022) Mechanical and microstructural properties of quaternary binder system containing OPC-GGBS-Metakaolin-Lime. Mater. Today Proc. 64 , 970-975.
BS EN 13055-1(2002) Lightweight aggregates - Part 1: Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout. european committee for standardization.
Cioffi, R.; Colangelo, F.; Montagnaro, F.; Santoro, L. (2011) Manufacture of artificial aggregate using MSWI bottom ash. Waste Manag. 31 , 281-288.
Gesoğlu, M.; Güneyisi, E.; Öz, H.Ö. (2012) Properties of lightweight aggregates produced with cold-bonding pelletization of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. Mater. Struct. Constr. 45, 1535-1546.
Colangelo, F.; Messina, F.; Cioffi, R. (2015) Recycling of MSWI fly ash by means of cementitious double step cold bonding pelletization: Technological assessment for the production of lightweight artificial aggregates. J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 181-191.
Bate, S.C.C. (1979) Guide for structural lightweight aggregate concrete: report of ACI committee 213. Int. J. Cem. Compos. Light. Concr. 1 , 5-6.
Gunning, P.J.; Hills, C.D.; Carey, P.J.(2009) Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide. Waste Manag. 29 , 2722-2728.
Shi, M.; Ling, T.C.; Gan, B.; Guo, M.Z. (2019) Turning concrete waste powder into carbonated artificial aggregates. Constr. Build. Mater. 199, 178-184.
Venkata Suresh, G.; Karthikeyan, J. (2016) Influence of chemical curing technique on the properties of fly ash aggregates prepared without conventional binders. J. Struct. Eng. 43, 381-389.
Gesoĝlu, M.; Güneyisi, E.; Mahmood, S.F.; öz, H. öznur, Mermerdaş, K. (2012) Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete. J. Hazard. Mater. 235-236, 352-358.
Tang, P.; Xuan, D.; Cheng, H.W.; Poon, C.S.; Tsang, D.C.W. (2020) Use of CO2 curing to enhance the properties of cold bonded lightweight aggregates (CBLAs) produced with concrete slurry waste (CSW) and fine incineration bottom ash (IBA). J. Hazard. Mater. 381, 120951.
Güneyisi, E.; Gesoglu, M.; Ghanim, H.; Ipek, S.; Taha, I. (2016) Influence of the artificial lightweight aggregate on fresh properties and compressive strength of the self-compacting mortars. Constr. Build. Mater. 116, 151-158.
Gesoǧlu, M.; Özturan, T.; Güneyisi, E. (2007) Effects of fly ash properties on characteristics of cold-bonded fly ash lightweight aggregates. Constr. Build. Mater. 21 , 1869-1878.
Alqahtani, F.K.; Ghataora, G.; Dirar, S.; Khan, M.I., Zafar, I. (2018) Experimental study to investigate the engineering and durability performance of concrete using synthetic aggregates. Constr. Build. Mater. 173, 350-358.
Mo, K.H.; Ling, T.C.; Cheng, Q. (2021) Examining the influence of recycled concrete aggregate on the hardened properties of self-compacting concrete. Waste Biomass Valoriz. 12, 1133-1141.
Shahane, H.A.; Patel, S. (2022) Influence of design parameters on engineering properties of angular shaped fly ash aggregates. Constr. Build. Mater. 327, 126914.
Karthik, A.,; Sudalaimani, K.; Vijayakumar, C.T.; Saravanakumar, S.S. (2019) Effect of bio-additives on physico-chemical properties of fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag based self cured geopolymer mortars. J. Hazard. Mater. 361, 56-63.
Samad, S.; Shah, A. (2017) Role of binary cement including Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM), in production of environmentally sustainable concrete: A critical review. Int. J. Sustain. Built Environ. 6, 663-674.
Karthik, A.; Sudalaimani, K.; Vijaya Kumar, C.T.; (2017) Investigation on mechanical properties of fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag based self curing bio-geopolymer concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 149, 338-349.
Meddah, M.S.; Ismail, M.A.; El-Gamal, S.; Fitriani, H. (2018) Performances evaluation of binary concrete designed with silica fume and metakaolin. Constr. Build. Mater. 166, 400-412.
Mukherjee, A.; Sumit; Deepmala; Dhiman, V.K.; Srivastava, P.; Kumar, A. (2021) Intellectual tool to compute embodied energy and carbon dioxide emission for building construction materials. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1950, 012025.
Yu, J.; Chen, Y.; Leung, C.K.Y. (2019) Mechanical performance of Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC) with hybrid polyvinyl alcohol and steel fibers. Compos. Struct. 226, 111198.
Medjigbodo, G.; Rozière, E.; Charrier, K.; Izoret, L.; Loukili, A.(2018) Hydration, shrinkage, and durability of ternary binders containing Portland cement, limestone filler and metakaolin. Constr. Build. Mater. 183, 114-126.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.