Cementos con cenizas volantes
Almost all the studies carried out on cements with the addition of flying ash refer to their characteristics and behaviours in pastes, mortars and concretes, always in relation with Portland cement. This time, there has been developed an experimental work oriented to relate between themselves the cements with additions of flying ash and of natural puzzolan. For this there were manufactured on laboratory scale cements of both types, using the same raw materials, clinker and plaster, and as variables, different percentages of the two additions, which previously complied with the standard requisites concerning their puzzolanic (??) activities. The quality of the cements manufactured was adequate and in accord with that of Portland-puzzolanic (??) cement obtained on an industrial scale with the same clinkers, plaster and natural puzzolan (??) of this study. Later there were determined the characteristics of the experimental cements and normal mortars were prepared for carrying out physical and mechanical tests. The test results indicated that the cements with addition of flying ash (CCV) require less water for normal consistency, present greater times of forging and fewer expansions in autoclave than the cements with the addition of puzzolan (CP). The hydration heats at 7 and 28 days were approximately similar for both types of cement. In normal mortars, the CCV cements showed less retraction of drying, greater retentivenness and greater fluidity (for the same quantity of water) than the CP cements. In the exudation tests it was observed that this depends more on the fineness than the type of addition. Finally, the mechanical tests showed that the resistances to compression and flexotraction of the mortars with CCV cements are lesser at ages less than 14 days (about 5 to 10% at one day of age), but from then on become greater than those of mortars with CP cements, with growing differences which reach 15% in compression tests, at 120 days of age, for additions of 20 and 30% .
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