Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties


  • M. Palacios Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja (IETcc-CSIC) - Institute for Building Materials. ETHZ
  • P. Bowen École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)
  • M. Kappl Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research
  • H. J. Butt Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research
  • M. Stuer École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
  • C. Pecharromán Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC)
  • U. Aschauer Materials theory, ETHZ
  • F. Puertas Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja (IETcc-CSIC)



dispersion, ground granulated blast furnace slag, surfaces, suspensions, rheology


The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.


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How to Cite

Palacios, M., Bowen, P., Kappl, M., Butt, H. J., Stuer, M., Pecharromán, C., Aschauer, U., & Puertas, F. (2012). Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties. Materiales De Construcción, 62(308), 489–513.



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