Manufacture of ceramics with high mechanical properties from red mud and granite waste




Ceramic, Characterisation, Flexural strength, Mechanical properties, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)


Red mud (bauxite residue) is an alkaline suspension that is the by-product of alumina production via the Bayer process. Its elevated annual production and the global inventory of red mud determine its valorisation. Granite can be used as a source of fluxing oxides for the ceramic industry, as can the flake-shaped waste generated during the flaming of granite. In this work, a set of ceramic pieces made of red mud and granite waste are prepared and characterised via X-ray diffraction, a hardness test, electron scanning microscopy, a leaching test, and determining open porosity, water absorption, bulk density and flexural strength of the samples. The main crystalline phases in the high-temperature fired products are hematite, pseudobrookite and anorthite; the presence of magnetite reveals their ferrimagnetic character. All samples present high mechanical properties. Leaching results are below critical levels established by regulations.


Download data is not yet available.


Xue, S.; Zhu, F.; Kong, X.; Wu, C.; Huang, L.; Huang, N.; Hartley, W. (2016) A review of the characterization and revegetation of bauxite residues (Red mud). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 23 [2], 1120-1132. PMid:25911289

Report of the 28th meeting of the scientific group, International Maritime Organization Publishing, London (UK), (2005).

Dauvin, J.C. (2010) Towards an impact assessment of bauxite red mud waste on the knowledge of the structure and functions of bathyal ecosystems: The example of the Cassidaigne canyon (North-Western Mediterranean Sea). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60 [2], 197-206. PMid:19837438

Fabri, M.C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A. (2014) Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts. Deep Sea Res. II 104, 184-207.

Fontanier, C.; Fabri, M.C.; Buscail, R.; Biscara, L.; Koho, K.; Reichart, G.J.; Cossa, D.; Galaup, S.; Chabaud, G.; Pigot, L. (2012) Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): Assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64 [9], 1895-1910. PMid:22795490

Czövek, D.; Novák, Z.; Somlai, C.; Asztalos, T.; Tiszlavicz, L.; Bozóki, Z.; Ajtai, T.; Utry, N.; Filep, A.; Bari, F.; Peták, F. (2012) Respiratory consequences of red sludge dust inhalation in rats. Toxicol. Lett. 209 [2], 113-120. PMid:22209771

Mi_ík, M.; Burke, I.T.; Reismu_ller, M.; Pichler, C.; Rainer, B.; Mi_íková, K.; Mayes, W.M.; Knasmueller, S. (2014) Red mud a byproduct of aluminum production contains soluble vanadium that causes genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in higher plants. Sci. Total Environ. 493, 883-890. PMid:25000584

Li, G.; Liu, M.; Rao, M.; Jiang, T.; Zhuang, J.; Zhang, Y. (2014) Stepwise extraction of valuable components from red mud based on reductive roasting with sodium salts. J. Hazard. Mater. 280, 774-780 PMid:25240647

Liu, Y.; Zhao, B.; Tang, Y.; Wan, P.; Chen, Y.; Lv, Z. (2014) Recycling of iron from red mud by magnetic separation after co-roasting with pyrite. Thermochim. Acta 588, 11-15.

Zhang, R.; Zheng, S.; Ma, S.; Zhang, Y. (2011) Recovery of alumina and alkali in Bayer red mud by the formation of andradite-grossular hydrogarnet in hydrothermal process. J. Hazard. Mater. 189 [3], 827-835. PMid:21444152

González-Trivi-o, I.; Benítez-Guerrero, M.; Carda Castelló, J.B.; Moreno, B.; Pascual-Cosp, J. (2018) Synthesis and characterization of ferrimagnetic glassceramic frit from waste. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 15 [3], 775-782.

Kehagia, F. (2010) A successful pilot project demonstrating the re-use potential of bauxite residue in embankment construction. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 54 [7], 417-421.

Gray, C.W.; Dunham, S.J.; Dennis, P.G.; Zhao, F.J.; McGrath, S.P. (2006) Field evaluation of in situ remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil using lime and red-mud. Environ. Pollut. 142 [3], 530-539. PMid:16321462

Huang, W.; Wang, S.; Zhu, Z.; Li, L.; Yao, X.; Rudolph, V.; Haghseresht, F. (2008) Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud. J. Hazard. Mater. 158 [1], 35-42. PMid:18314264

Pontikes, Y.; Angelopoulos, G.N. (2013) Bauxite residue in cement and cementitious applications: Current status and a possible way forward. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 73, 53-63.

Rai, S.; Lataye, D.H.; Chaddha, M.J.; Mishra, R.S.; Mahendiran, P.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Yoo, C.K.; Wasewar, K.L. (2013) An Alternative to Clay in Building Materials: Red Mud Sintering Using Fly Ash via Taguchi's Methodology. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2013, Article ID 757923.

Pérez-Villarejo, L.; Corpas-Iglesias, F.A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Artiaga, R.; Pascual-Cosp, J. (2012) Manufacturing new ceramic materials from clay and red mud derived from the aluminium industry. Constr. Build. Mater. 35, 656-665.

Singh, S.; Nagar, R.; Agrawal, V.; Rana, A. (2015) Utilization of granite cutting waste in concrete as partial replacement of sand. Conference paper: UKIERI Concrete Congress - Concrete Research Driving Profit and Sustainability, Jalandhar, India.

Ashmole, I.; Motloung, M. (2008) Dimension stone: the latest trends in exploration and production technology. Conference paper: The international conference in surface mining, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Hamza, R.A.; El-Haggar, S.; Khedr, S. (2011) Marble and granite waste: characterization and utilization in concrete bricks. Int. J. Biosci. Biochem. Bioinforma. 1 [4], 286-291.

González-Trivi-o, I.; Benítez-Guerrero, M.; Moreno, B.; Pascual-Cosp, J. (2018) Ferrimagnetic wollastonite ceramics based on waste valorization. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 00, 1-6.

Committee AEN/CTN 138. (2014). UNE-EN ISO 10545- 4:2014. Ceramic tiles. Part 4: Determination of modulus of rupture and breaking strength. Madrid: AENOR. 23. Committee AEN/CTN 264. (20015). UNE-EN 843-4:2005. Advanced technical ceramics. Mechanical properties of monolithic ceramics at room temperature. Part 4: Vickers, Knoop and Rockwell superficial hardness tests. Madrid: AENOR.

Committee ISO/TC 189. (2018). ISO 10545-3:2018. Ceramic tiles. Part 3: Determination of water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative density and bulk density. Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

Committee AEN/CTN 77. (2002). UNE-EN 12457-4:2002. Characterization of waste. Leaching. Compliance for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges. Part 4: One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 L/kg for materials with particle size below 10 mm (without or with size reduction). Madrid: AENOR.

Torres, P.; Manjate, R.S.; Quaresma, S.; Fernandes, H.R.; Ferreira, J.M.F. (2007) Development of ceramic floor tile compositions based on quartzite and granite sludges. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27 [16], 4649-4655.

Zhao, L.; Li, Y.; Jiang, F.; Cang, D. (2016) Effects of compositionchanges on the sintering properties of novel Steel slag ceramics. In: Advances in materials science for environmental and energy technologies V, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey (USA), (2016).

Barrios de Arenas, I.; Arenas, F.; Cho, S.A.; Martínez, S.; Sicardi, R. (2000) Efecto de los aditivos en la formación y estabilidad térmica a baja temperatura del titanato de aluminio. Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. V. 39 [6], 699-703 (In Spanish).

Kato, E., Daimon, K., Takahashi, J. (1980) Decomposition Temperature of b-Al2TiO5. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 63 [5-6], 355-356.

Zhang, D. (2013) Ultra-supercritical coal power plants. Materials, technologies and optimisation, Woodhead publishing limited, Cambridge (UK), (2013).

Özdemir, Ö., Dunlop, D.J. (2000) Intermediate magnetite formation during dehydration of goethite. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 177 [1-2], 59-67.

Watanabe, Y., Ishii, K. (1995) Geometrical consideration of the crystallography of the transformation from a-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4. Phys. Stat. Solids 150 [2], 673-686.

Guidelines for drinking-water quality, World Health Organization, Geneva (CH), (2011).



How to Cite

Gonzalez-Triviño, I., Pascual-Cosp, J., Moreno, B., & Benítez-Guerrero, M. (2019). Manufacture of ceramics with high mechanical properties from red mud and granite waste. Materiales De Construcción, 69(333), e180.



Research Articles