Predicting the Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Intelligent Techniques to Reduce CO2 Emissions
Keywords:CO2 emission, Mechanical properties of concrete, Optimum mix design, Particle swarm optimisation, Response surface method
The contribution to global CO2 emissions from concrete production is increasing. In this paper, the effect of concrete mix constituents on the properties of concrete and CO2 emissions was investigated. The tested materials used 47 mixtures, consisting of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) type I, coarse aggregate, river sand and chemical admixtures. Response surface methodology (RSM) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithms were employed to evaluate the mix constituents at different levels simultaneously. Quadratic and line models were produced to fit the experimental results. Based on these models, the concrete mixture necessary to achieve optimum engineering properties was found using RSM and PSO. The resulting mixture required to obtain the desired mechanical properties for concrete was 1.10-2.00 fine aggregate/cement, 1.90-2.90 coarse aggregate/cement, 0.30-0.4 water/cement, and 0.01-0.013 chemical admixtures/cement. Both methods had over 94% accuracy, compared to the experimental results. Finally, by employing RSM and PSO methods, the number of experimental mixtures tested could be reduced, saving time and money, as well as decreasing CO2 emissions.
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