Study of the alkali-silica reaction rate of Spanish aggregates. Proposal of a classification based in accelerated mortar bars tests and petrographic parameters
Keywords:Alkali-silica reaction, Spanish aggregates, Reaction rate, Mortar bar test, Petrography, Quartz reactivity index
The alkali-silica reaction has been studied in depth due to the evolution in the knowledge of the expansive phenomenon. One of its most important aspects is the reaction rate of the aggregates. In Spain, at the early 90s of the 20th century, aggregates were considered almost non-reactive. However, the use of accelerated curing and other environmental factors revealed that there were potentially reactive siliceous aggregates. Nevertheless, there are several siliceous and limestone aggregates with siliceous inclusions that show reactivity over long period. In the present work, open porosity, expansion and petrography with quartz reactivity index have been determined, in 68 siliceous, limestone and dolomitic aggregates, from quarries located in areas with diagnostic reactivity. Based on these parameters and their interrelation, a classification method is proposed to detect slow-reacting aggregates.
ACI 201.2R-08. (2008) Guide to durable concrete, reported by ACI committee 201, Ed. American Concrete Institute.
Soriano, J. (1987) Reactions d'interaction entre certains granulats et la phase interstitielle du beton, In Pore Structure and Materials Properties. 25-32. Chapman & Hall Ed., London, (1987).
Soriano, J.; García Calleja, M.A. (1989) Áridos reactivos. Acción del hidróxido cálcico sobre áridos silicatados. In III Congreso de Geoquímica España. 9-15. España, (1989).
Menéndez, E. (1993a) Deterioro de materiales artificiales I. Reacción álcali-árido. La humedad como patología frecuente en la edificación. Colegio oficial de aparejadores y arquitectos técnicos de Madrid, 163-169. Madrid, (1993).
Menéndez, E. (1993b) Estudio microestructural de productos de reacción álcali-árido en hormigones curados a alta temperatura. Mater. Construcc. 43 . https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.1993.v43.i232.664
Menéndez, E. (2010) Análisis del hormigón en estructuras afectadas por reacción Árido-Álcali, ataque por sulfatos y ciclos Hielo-deshielo. Ed. IECA, España, (2010).
Bragg, D. (1993) Alkali-aggregate reactivity in Newfoundland: Field and laboratory investigation. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Branch, Report. 93-1, 113-126. Canada.
Bragg, D. (1995) Petrographic examination of construction aggregates of Newfoundland. Department of Natural Resources. Geological Survey. Report 95-1, 77-104. Canada.
Wigum, B.J. (1995a) Examination of microstructural features of Norwegian cataclastic rocks and their use for predicting alkali reactivity in concrete. Eng. Geol. 40 [3-4], 195-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-7952(95)00044-5
Lagerblad, B.; Trägårdh, J. (1992) Slowly reacting aggregates in Sweden - Mechanism and conditions for reactivity in concrete. Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete, Concrete Society Publication CS-104. 2, 570-578. London (1992).
Wigum, B.J. (1995b) Ph D reactions in concrete properties, classification and testing of norwegian cataclastic rocks. University of Trondheim, Norway (1995).
ASTM C1260-21. (2021) Standard test method for potential alkali reactivity of aggregates (mortar-bar method). ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2021).
UNE 146508:2018. (2018) Test for aggregates. determination of the alkali-silica and alkali-silicate potential reactivity of aggregates. accelerated mortar bar test. UNE: Madrid, Spain.
Blight, G.; Alexander, M. (2011) Alkali-aggregate reaction and structural damage to concrete. engineering assessment, repair and management. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group, London, (2011). https://doi.org/10.1201/b10773
Furny, J.; Kerkhoff, B. (2007) Diagnosis and control of alkali-aggregate reactions in concrete, concrete technology. PCA R&D, Illinois.
Bragg, D.; Foster, K. (1992) Relationship between petrography and results of alkali-reactivity testing, samples from Newfoundland, Canada. The 9th International Conference on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete, 127-135. London, UK (1992).
Jensen, V. (2012) Reclassification of alkali aggregate reaction. In Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete, 10, Austin.
AAR-1.1 (2016) Detection of potential alkali-reactivity Part 1: petrographic examination method. RILEM Recommendations for the prevention of damage by alkali-aggregate reactions in new concrete structures. State-of-the-art report of the RILEM Technical Committee 219-ACS. Springer, Switzerland.
Gomes Neto, D.P.; Conceiçãoc, H.; Carvalho Lisboa, V.A.; Soares de Santanaa, R.; Silva Barreto, L. (2014) Influence of granitic aggregates from northeast brazil on the alkali-aggregate reaction. Mater. Res. 17 , 51-58 https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392014005000045
Bulteel, D.; Garcia-Diaz, E.; Vernet, C.; Zanni, H. (2002). Alkali-silica reaction: A method to quantify the reaction degree. Cem. Concr. Res. 32 , 1199-1206. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00759-7
Gao, X.X.; Cyr, M.; Multon, S.; Sellier, A. (2013) A comparison of methods for chemical assessment of reactive silica in concrete aggregates by selective dissolution. Cem. Concr. Comp. 37, 82-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.12.002
ABNT. NBR 15577-1 (2008) Aggregates-Alkali-aggregate reactivity Part 1: Guide for the evaluation of potential reactivity of aggregates and preventive measures for its use in concrete, ABNT: Rio de Janeiro, (in Portuguese).
Ponce, J.M.; Batic, O.R. (2006) Different manifestations of the alkali-silica reaction in concrete according to the reaction kinetics of reactive aggregate. Cem. Concr. Res. 36 , 1148-1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.12.022
Alaejos, P.; Lanza, V. (2012) Influence of equivalent reactive quartz content on expansion due to alkali silica reaction. Cem. Concr. Res. 42 , 99-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.08.006
Tiecher, F.; Rolim, P.H.; Hasparik, N.P.; Dal, Molin, D.C.C.; Gomes, M.E.B.; Glieze, P. (2012) Reactivity study of Brazilian aggregates through silica dissolution analysis. In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete, 10, Austin.
Dolar-Mantuani, L.M.M. (1981) Undulatory extinction in quartz used for identifying potentially reactive rocks. In Proceedings of Conference on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete, 252 , 11, Cape Town, South Africa (1981).
Sims, I.; Hunt, B.; Miglio, B. (1992) Quantifying microscopical examination of concrete for aar and other durability aspects. Spec. Public. 131, 267-287.
Grattan-Bellew, P.E. (1986) Is high undulatory extinction in quartz indicative of alkali-expansivity of granitic aggregates?, In Proc. 7th International Conference on Concrete Alkali-Aggregate Reactions, Canada.
Prendes, N.; Menéndez, E. (2007) Digital image processing and MEB (BSE) Techniques in the identification and quantification of minerals phases present in cement and concrete. MRS Online Proc. Library 1026. 404. https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1026-C04-04
Menéndez, E.; García-Rovés, R.; Prendes, N. (2015) Metodología avanzada de evaluación petrográfica de áridos para predecir su potencial reactividad frente a los álcalis del hormigón, In Proc. IV Congreso Nacional de Áridos, Madrid.
UNE-EN 932-3 and UNE-EN 932-3/A1:2004. (2004) tests for general properties of aggregates. part 3: procedure and terminology for simplified petrographic description. UNE: Madrid, Spain.
UNE 146509:2018. (2018) Determination of the potential reactivity of aggregates. Concrete prisms method; UNE: Madrid, Spain.
UNE 83967:2016 EX. (2016) Concrete durability. Test method for the assessment of potential expansion due to alkali-aggregate reactivity of concrete mixes. Method semi-accelerated of concrete prisms. UNE: Madrid, Spain.
UNE 83968: 2016 EX. (2016) Concrete durability. Evaluation of the expansion of mortar bars using potential reactive and non-reactive aggregate mixes, against alkali-silica and alkali-silicate. Accelerated method of mortar bars. UNE: Madrid, Spain.
UNE 83969:2017 EX. (2017) Concrete durability. Evaluation of the expansion of mortar bars using potential reactive binders and aggregates against alkali-silica and alkali-silicate. Accelerated method of mortar bars. UNE: Madrid, Spain.
Menéndez, E. (2019) Estrategia integral de prevención de la reacción árido-álcali, monografías del IETcc, 430. Ed. CSIC, Madrid.
EHE-08. (2008) Instrucción del hormigón estructural, Centro de Publicaciones Secretaría General Técnica Ministerio de Fomento, España, (2008).
Velasco-Torres, A.; Alaejos, P.; Soriano, J. (2010) Comparative study of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in granitic aggregates. Estud. Geológ. 66 , 105-114. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.40133.091
Rocker, P., Mohammadi, J., Sirivivatnanon, V.; South, W. (2015) Linking New Australian alkali silica reactivity tests to world-wide performance date. Proceedings of the Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week, 2015, pp. 502 - 513, Ed. Concrete Institute of Australia.
Shayan, A.; Morris, H.A. (2001) Comparison of RTA T363 and ASTM C1260 accelerated mortar bar test methods for detecting reactive aggregates. Cem. Concr. Res. 31 , 655-663. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00491-9
Stark, D.; Morgan, B.; Okamoto, P. (1993) Eliminating or Minimizing Alkali-Silica Reactivity. Strategic Highway Research Program, Washington DC, (1993).
Bérubé, M.; Fournier, B. (1993) Canadian experience with testing for alkali-aggregate reactivity in concrete. Cem. Concr. Compos. 15 [1-2], 27-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0958-9465(93)90037-A
Shayan, A. (2007) Field evidence for inability of ASTM C 1260 limits to detect slowly reactive Australian aggregates. Aust. J. Civ. Eng. 3 , 13-26.. https://doi.org/10.1080/14488353.2007.11463917
Lindgård, J. (2011) RILEM TC 219-ACS-P: Literature survey on performance testing, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Norway, (2011).
Castro, N.; Sorensen, B.E.; Broekmans, M.A. (2012) Quantitative assessment of alkali-reactive aggregate mineral content through XRD using polished sections as a supplementary tool to RILEM AAR-1 (petrographic method). Cem. Concr. Res. 42 , 1428-1437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.08.004
Nixon, P.; Lane, S. (2006) Experience from testing of the alkali reactivity of European aggregates according to several concrete prism test methods. Partner Report 3. Norway.
Islam, M.S. (2010) Performance of Nevada's aggregates in alkali- aggregate reactivity of Portland cement concrete. UNLV Thes. Dissert. Profess. Papers Capsto. 243.
ACI221.1R-98. (1998) State-of-the-art report on alkali-aggregate reactivity, Reported by ACI Committee 221, (1998).
Shayan, A. (2011) Aggregate selection for durability of concrete structures. Proceedings of the ICE-Construction Materials. 64 , 111-121. https://doi.org/10.1680/coma.900018
On behalf of the membership of RILEM TC 219-ACS, Nixon P.J., Sims I. (2016) RILEM Recommended test method: AAR-4.1-Detection of potential alkali-reactivity-60 °C Test method for aggregate combinations using concrete prisms. In: Nixon P., Sims I. (eds) RILEM Recommendations for the prevention of damage by alkali-aggregate reactions in new concrete structures. RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports, vol 17. Springer, Dordrecht.
Ponce, J.M.; Batic, O.R. (2006) Different manifestations of the alkali-silica reaction in concrete according to the reaction kinetics of reactive aggregate. Cem. Concr. Res. 2006; 36 , 1148-1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.12.022
AS 1141.60.1:2014. (2014) Methods for sampling and testing aggregates Potential alkali-silica reactivity - Accelerated mortar bar method, AS: Australia.
de Terán, M.; Solé-Sabarís, L. (1978) Geografía general de España, Ed. Ariel, España, (1978).
UNE-EN 197-1:2011. (2011) Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. (UNE): Madrid, Spain.
UNE-EN 196-1:2018. (2018) Methods of testing cement - Part 1: Determination of strength. (UNE): Madrid, Spain.
UNE 83980:2014. (2014) Concrete durability. Test methods. Determination of the water absorption, density and accessible porosity for water in concrete. (UNE): Madrid, Spain.
ASTM C294-19. (2019) Standard descriptive nomenclature for constituents of concrete aggregates. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA
UNE 80113:2013. (2013) Test methods of cements. Physical analysis. Determination of the autoclave expansion. (UNE): Madrid, Spain.
ASTM C295 / C295M-19. (2019) Standard guide for petrographic examination of aggregates for concrete.
Idorm, G.M.; Johansen, V.; Thaulow, N. (1992) Assessment of causes of cracking in concrete. Material Science in Concrete III. American Ceramic Society, New York.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
Grant numbers PIE 201660E054;PIE 202060E176