Materiales de Construcción, Vol 63, No 310 (2013)

Performance of silicic pozzolans and Portland cements in their behavior in front of gypsum attack as determined by ASTM C 452-68


https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2013.00612

R. Talero
Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja (CSIC). Madrid (España)., Spain

Abstract


For this study, ASTM C 452-68 testing was conducted for two years on 54 POZC-silica fume (SF) or diatomites (D and N) (=Z pozzolans), were tested for 2 years, by ASTM C 452-68 method, having determined to their specimens their Vcl(=ΔL(%)/day) . The results have borne out that the pozzolanic reactions from SiO2r- of these Z pozzolans, in a sulfatic environment, had prevailed sooner (with D and N) or later (with SF) over the sulfatic hydration of their POZC, reaching completion in the first 28 days. Therefore, after positive result is obtained in the Frattini test, as well as in other equivalent tests standardized, the ASTM C 452- 68 test can be validly used to differentiate 28-day POZC-Z pozzolan or with any other from natural or artificial origin, which may or may not give rise to the development of low, moderate or high SR. The only requisite would be to establish suitable standard physical-chemical requirements and specifications..

Keywords


gypsum attack; portland cements; silica fume; diatomites

Full Text:


PDF

References


(1) ASTM C 452-68 Standard: Standard Test Method for Potential Expansion of Portland Cement Mortars Exposed to Sulphate. ANNUAL BOOK OF ASTM STANDARDS. Part 9, Cement;Lime;Gypsum, pp. 298-300 (1968).

(2) Gospodinov, P.N.; Kazandjiev, R.F.; Partalin, T.A.; Mironova, M.K.: "Diffusion of sulphate ions into cement stone regarding simultaneous chemical reactions and resulting effects". Cem. Concr. Res. vol. 29, nº 10 (1999), pp. 1591-1596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00138-6

(3) Marchand, J.; Skalny J.P.: "Materials Science of Concrete: Sulphate Attack Mechanism". Published by the American Ceramic Society, 735, Ceramic Place, Westerville, OH 43081.USA.

(4) Santhanam, M; Cohen, M.D; Olek, J: "Sulphate attack research – whither now?" Cem. Concr. Res. vol. 31, nº 6 (2001), pp. 845-851. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00510-5

(5) Bensted, J.: A discussion of the review paper "Sulphate attack research-whiter now? By M. Santhanam, M.D. Cohen; J. Olek. Cem. Concr. Res. Vol. 32, nº 6 (2002), pp. 995-1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00731-7

(6) Jaspers, M.J. : "Contribution à l’étude experimentale de la mesure per l’essai Le Chatelier-Ansttet de la resistance des ciments aux sulfates et chlorures". Rev. Mat. Constr. Trav. Public. 633-634 (1968), pp. 244-256.

(7) Jaspers M.J.M.: "Contribution à l´etude expérimentale de la mesure de la résistance aux sulfates des ciments selon la méthode ASTM C 452-68". Rev. Mat. Constr. Trav. Publics. Nº 656 (1970), pp. 135-143.

(8) Mather, K.: "Factors affecting sulphate resistance of mortars". Proceedings of the 7thInternational Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, Paris, vol. IV (1980), pp. 580-585.

(9) Mehta, P.K.: "Mechanism of sulphate attack on Portland cement concrete. Another look". Cem. Concr. Res. vol. 13, nº 3 (1983), pp. 401-406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(83)90040-6

(10) Mehta, P.K.: "Effect of fly ash composition on sulphate resistance of cement". ACI Journal, vol. 83, nº 6 (1986), pp. 994-1000.

(11) Tikalsky, P.J.; Carrasquillo, R.L.: "Influence of fly ash on the sulphate resistance of concrete". ACI Materials Journal, vol. 89, nº 1 (1992), pp. 69-75.

(12) Mather, K.: "Tests and evaluation of Portland and blended cements for resistance to sulphate attack". Symposium on Cement Standards - Evolution and Trends, STP-663, ASTM, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Mo., pp.74-86, 7 dec. 1977.

(13) Corr, D.J.; Monteiro P.J.M.; Kurtis, K.E.; Der Kiureghian, A.: "Sulphate attack of concrete: Reliability analysis". ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL, Technical Paper, vol. 98, nº.2, March/April 2001.

(14) Talero, R.: "Contribution to the Analytical and Physical-Chemical Study of the System: Pozzolanic Cements-Gypsum- Water (20º ± 3ºC)". Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 20 nov. 1986.

(15) Talero, R.: "Kinetochemical and morphological differentiation of ettringites by the Le Chatelier-Ansttet test". Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 32, nº 5 (2002), pp. 707-717. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00749-9

(16) Talero, R.: "Performance of metakaolin and portland cements in ettringite formation as determined by ASTM C 452- 68: Kinetic and morphological differences". Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 32, nº 7 (2005), pp. 269-284.

(17) Talero, R.: "Co-precipitation of rapid and slow forming ettringite. Consequence: Expansive Synergic Effect." Mater. Construcc., vol. 61, nº 303 (2011), pp. 37-52.

(18) Talero, R.: "Expansive Synergic Effect of ettringite from pozzolan (metakaolin) and from OPC, co-precipitating in a common plaster-bearing solution. Part II: Fundamentals, explanation and justification". Constr. and Build. Mater., vol. 25, nº 3 (2011), pp. 1139-1158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.09.006

(19) Cohen, D.; Mather, B.: "Sulfate Attack on Concrete - Research Needs". ACI Materials Journal vol. 88, nº 1 (1991), pp. 62-69.

(20) Hooton, R.D.: "Bridging the gap between research and standards". Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 38, nº 2 (2008), pp. 47-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.09.012

(21) Talero, R.: "Pozzolanic cements with greater sulphate-resistance than SRPC and vice verse. Mater. Construcc.", vol. 37, nº 207 (1987), pp. 37-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.1987.v37.i207.861

(22) Talero, R.; Rahhal, V.: "Calorimetric comparison of portland cement containing silica fume and metakaolin: Is silica fume, like metakaolin, characterized by pozzolanic activity that is more specific than generic?" J. Therm. Anal. Cal., vol. 2, nº 2 (2009), pp. 383-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10973-008-9096-x

(23) Trusilewicz, L.; Fernández-Martínez, F.; Talero, R.: "TEM and SAED Characterization of Metakaolin. Pozzolanic Activity". J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 95, nº 9 (2012), pp. 2989-2996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2012.05325.x

(24) Mejía, R.; Delvasto, S.; Talero, R.: "Chloride diffusion measured by a modified permeability test in normal and blended cements". Advances in Cement Research, vol. 15, nº 3 (2003), pp. 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/adcr.2003.15.3.113

(25) Talero, R.: "Synergic Effect of Friedel's salt from pozzolan and from OPC, co-precipitating in a common chlorides solution: Part II: demonstration, fundamentals and justification". Constr. and Build. Mater., vol. 25, nº 3 (2012), pp. 1139-1158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.09.006

(26) Felekoglu, B.; Ramyar, K.; Tosum, K.; Musal, B.: "Sulphate resistances of different types of Turkish Portland cements by selecting the appropriate test methods". Constr. and Build. Mater., vol. 20, nº 9 (2006), pp. 819-823. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.01.048

(27) ASTM C 1012 Standard: Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulphate Solution. ANNUAL BOKK OF ASTM STANDARDS, Section 4, Vol. 04.01 Cement; Lime; Gypsum, pp. 450-454.

(28) ASTM C 778-92a: Standard Specification for Standard Sand. ANNUAL BOKK OF ASTM STANDARDS, Section 4, vol. 04.01 Cement; Lime; Gypsum, pp. 329-331.

(29) Tosun, K. Felekoglu, B., Baradan B., Akin Altun, I. .: "Effects of limestone replacement ratio on the sulphate resistance of Portland limestone cement mortars exposed to extraordinary high sulphate concentrations". Constr. and Build. Mater., vol. 23, nº 7 (2009), pp. 2534-2544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.02.039

(30) Calleja, J.; Aguanell, M.: "Considerations about the ANSTTET test and the behaviour of cements in front of sulfates". Mater. Constr. vol. 179 (1980), pp. 39-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.1980.v30.i179.1048

(31) Talero, R., Pedrajas, C., Delgado, A., Rahhal, V.: "Re-use of incinerated agro-industrial waste as pozzolanic addition. Comparison with Spanish silica fume". Mater. Construcc. Vol. 59, nº 296 (2009), pp. 53-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2009.49809

(32) Irassar, E.F.; Bonavetti, V.L.; González, M.: "Microstructural study of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone Portland c0ements at ambient temperature". Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 33, nº 1 (2003), pp. 31-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00914-6

(33) Rahhal, V., Bonavetti, V., Trusilewicz, L., Pedrajas, C., Talero, R.: "Role of the filler on Portland cement hydration at early ages", Constr. and Build. Mater., vol. 27, nº 1 (2012), pp. 82-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.07.021

(34) Talero R.: Los cementos Pótland de moderada resistencia sulfática. Métodos acelerados de ensayo para determinarla. Bases para su caracterización y control. Monografía nº 399 del IETcc-CSIC, dic. 1989.

(35) Instrucción para la Recepción de Cementos RC-08 (R.D. 956/2008 de 6 de junio; BOE nº 148 del 19 de junio de 2008).

(36) EN 197-1:2011: Cemento. Parte 1: Composición, especificaciones y criterios de conformidad de los cementos comunes. AENOR, Calle Génova, 6, 28004-MADRID-Espa-a.

(37) Pliego de Prescripciones Técnicas Generales para la Recepción de Cementos, 1975 (Decreto de la Presidencia del Gobierno 1964/1975 de 23 de mayo; B.O.E. núm. 206 de 28 e agosto de 1975).

(38) EN 196-2:2005 Standard. Methods of testing cement. Chemical analysis of cement. AENOR.

(39) ASTM C 311-07 Standard. Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 04.02, 2007.

(40) UNE 80-225-93 Standard: Métodos de ensayo de cementos. Análisis Químico: Determinación del dióxido de silicio (SiO2) reactivo en los cementos, en las puzolanas y en las cenizas volantes. AENOR.

(41) Frattini, N.: "Solubilità dell'idrato di calcio in presenza di idrato di potassio e idrato di sodio". Ann. Chim. Applicata, vol. 39, (1949), pp. 616-20 = Pliego de Prescripciones Técnicas Generales para la Recepción de Cementos RC-75(BOE nº 206 de 28 de agosto de 1975) ≈ EN 196-5 Standard (Pozzolanicity test for POZC).

(42) EN 450 Standard: Fly ash for concrete. Definitions, requirements and quality control. AENOR.

(43) EN 13263-1 Standard. Silica fume for concrete. Part 1: Definitions, requirements and conformity criteria. AENOR.

(44) ASTM C 593-76a Standard: Standards Specifications for Fly Ash and Other Pozzolans for Use with Lime. ANNUAL BOOK OF ASTM STANDARDS, Section 04 Construction Vol. 04.01 Cement; Lime; Gypsum, pp.286-296290. 1995.

(45) ASTM C 618-95a. Standard Specification for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 04.02, 1994.

(46) ASTM C 595M-95 Standard: Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements.- ANNUAL BOOK OF ASTM STANDARS, Section 4 Construction, vol. 04.01 Cement; Lime; Gypsum, pp. 291-296. 1995.

(47) Hime, W., Backus, L. A. Discussion of the paper: "Redefining cement characteristics of sulphate-resistant Pórtland cement". Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 33, nº 11 (2003), pp.1907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(03)00153-4

(48) Tikalsky, P.J., Roy, D.M., Scheetz B., Krize, T. Reply to the discussion by W.Hime and L.Backus of the paper "Redefining cement characteristics of sulphate-resistant Portland cement". Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 33, nº 11 (2003), pp.1909. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(03)00154-6

(49) Talero, R.: "Sulphatic characterization of pozzolanic aditions: accelerated test methods to determine it (Le Chatelier- Ansett and ASTM C 452 methods)". 10TH International Coal Ash Symposium. Proceedings, Vol. 2, Section 8: Concrete III, Orlando - Florida - USA, jan. 1993.

(50) ASTM C 150-95 Standard: Standard Specification for Portland Cement.- ANNUAL BOOK OF ASTM STANDARDS.- Sec. 4 Construction, Vol. 04. 01 Cement;Lime;Gypsum.pp.128-132,1995.

(51) A Performance Test for the Potential Sulfate Resistance of Portland Cement. Reported by the Working Committee on Sulfate Resistance of ASTM Committee C-1 on Cement.- ASTM Bulletin 212, pp. 37-44, feb. 1956.

(52) Eitel, W.: "Recent Investigations of the System: Lime-Alumina-Calcium Sulphate-Water and its importance in Building Research Problems". J. Am. Concr. Inst., vol. 28, nº 7 (1957), pp. 679-698.

(53) UNE 80-103:1986. Métodos de ensayo de cementos. Ensayos físicos. Determinación de la densidad real. AENOR.

(54) UNE 80-122:1991. Métodos de ensayo de cementos. Determinación de la finura. AENOR (= EN 196-7:1990 standard).

(55) EN 196-1 Standard: Methods for testing cement. Part 1: Determination of mechanical strengts.- AENOR.

(56) EN 196-3:1996 Standard: Métodos de ensayo de cementos. Parte 3: Determinación del tiempo de fraguado (Setting times determination) y estabilidad de volumen (volume stability by Le Chatelier needles).- AENOR.

(57) Richardson I.G.: "The nature of C-S-H in hardened cements". Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 29, nº 8 (1999), pp. 1131-1147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00168-4

(58) Richardson I.G., Groves G.W.: "Microstructure and microanalysis of hardened ordinary Portland cement pastes". Journal of Materials Science, vol. 28, nº 1 (1993), pp. 265-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00349061

(59) Williamson, R.B.: "Solidification in Portland cement". Progress in Materials Science, vol. 15, nº 3 (1972), pp. 189-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0079-6425(72)90001-1

(60) Groves, G.W.: "Microcrystalline calcium hydroxide in Portland cement pastes of low water/cement ratio". Cem. Concr. Res. vol. 11, nº 2 (1981), pp. 713-718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(81)90029-6

(61) Jennings, H.M.; Dalgleish, B.J.; Pratt, P.L.: "Morphological development of hydrating tricalcium silicate as exanimate by electro microscopy techniques". J. Am. Cer. Soc., vol. 64, nº 10 (1981), pp. 567-572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1981.tb10219.x

(62) Shahsavari, R.; Buehler, M.J.; Pellenq, R. J.M.; Ulm F-J.: "First-Principles Study of Elastic Constants and Interlayer Interactions of Complex Hydrated Oxides: Case Study of Tobermorite and Jennite". J. Am. Ceram. Soc. vol. 92, nº (10) (2009), pp. 2323-2330.




Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us materconstrucc@ietcc.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es