Materiales de Construcción, Vol 67, No 326 (2017)

A new method in estimation of total hexavalent chromium in Portland pozzolan cement


https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2017.03116

R. Sharma
School of Physical Science, Lovely Professional University, India
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5808-0045

D. K. Sharma
School of Physical Science, Lovely Professional University, India
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5113-8531

Abstract


Variamine blue was used first time for the detection of hexavalent chromium from cement samples. In present method, cement was treated sequentially with water, sulphate and carbonate buffer to extract soluble, sparingly soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium respectively. Extracted Cr (VI) was determined using variamine blue as chromogenic reagent. The determination is based on the reaction of hexavalent chromium with potassium iodide in an acid medium to liberate iodine. This oxidizes variamine blue to form a violet coloured species having an absorption to maximum at 556 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) confirmed the complete extraction of hexavalent chromium by sequential extraction process. SRM 2701 (Reference material from NIST, USA) was used for revalidating the results. The percentage of recovery for proposed and reference method (diphelycarbazide method) varied from 98.5 to 101 and 97.5 to 100.5. Whereas, their relative error percentage varied from -1.5 to 0.33 and -2.5 to 0.5.

Keywords


Portland cement; Estimation; Chromium; Variamine blue; UV-visible; IR; EDX

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Dayan, A.D.; Paine, A.J. (2001) Mechanisms of chromium toxicity, carcinogenicity and allergenicity: review of the literature from 1985 to 2000. Hum. Exp. Toxic. 20 [9], 439-51. https://doi.org/10.1191/096032701682693062 PMid:11776406

Gibb, H.J.; Lees, P.S.; Pinsky, P.F.; Rooney, B.C. (2000) Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production. Am. J. Ind. Med. 38 [2000], 115-126. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0274(200008)38:2<115::AID-AJIM1>3.0.CO;2-Y

Mancuso, T.F. (1997) Chromium as an industrial carcinogen: Part I. Am. J. Ind. Med. 31 [2], 129-139. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199702)31:2<129::AID-AJIM1>3.0.CO;2-V

Dillon, C.; Lay. P.A.; Bonin, A.M.; Dixon, N.E.; Collins, T.J.K. (1993) In vitro DNA damage and mutations induced by a macrocyclic tetraamide chromium(V) complex: implications for the role of Cr (V) peptide complexes in chromium- induced cancers. Carcinogenesis. 14 [9], 1875-1880. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/14.9.1875

Guo, Q. (1997) Increases of lead and chromium in drinking water from using cement mortar-lined pipes: initial modeling and assessment. J Hazard Mater. 56 [1-2]. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3894(97)00052-6

Hills, M.; Johansen, V. C. (2007) Hexavalent Chromium in Cement Manufacturing: Literature Review Portland Cement Association SN2983.

Luke, C. L. (1958) Photometric Determination of Chromium in Electronic Nickel. Anal. Chem. 30 [3], 359 361.

Sharma, D. K.; Sharma, R. (2015) Reduction of Water Soluble Hexavalent Chromium in Hydrated Portland Cement. Indian J Sci Technol. 8 [11]. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i11/71773

Urone, P.E. (1955) Stability of Colourimetric Reagent for Chromium, s Diphenylcarbazide, in Various Solvent. Anal. Chem. 27 [8], 1354-1355. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60104a048

Revanasiddappa, H.D.; Kiran Kumar, T.N. (2001) Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Chromium with Citrazinic Acid. J. Anal. Chem. 56 [12]. 1084-1088. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012928731437

Narayana, B.; Cherian, T.J. (2005) Rapid spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of chromium using variamine blue as a chromogenic reagent. Braz. Chem. Soc. 16 [2], 197-201. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0103-50532005000200011

Sharma, R.; Sharma, D.K. (2014) Study of total chromium and water soluble chromium in Indian cement samples IJoART. 3 [2], 1-5.

Sharma, R.; Sharma, D.K. (2014) Exploring Basic & Applied Sciences for Next Generation Frontiers EBAS, Proceedings, ISBN. 9789351073130. Elsevier Science & Technology (2014).

Ashley, K.; Howe, M.; Demangec, M. (2003) Sampling and analysis considerations for the determination of hexavalent chromium in workplace air. J. Environ. Monit. 5, 707-716. https://doi.org/10.1039/b306105c

European Committee for Standardization, EN196-10 Methods of testing cement - Part 10: Determination of the water soluble chromium (VI) content of cement, Brussels. 2006.

Barber, D.; Ddabi¥c, P.; Krolo, P. (2012) Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement. Sadhana. 37 [6], 731-737. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12046-012-0106-0

Estokova, A.; Palaskakova, E.; Singovszka, M. (2012) Analysis of the Chromium Concentrations in Cement Materials. Procedia Engineering. 42, 23-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.402

Learner, Thomas. J. S. (2004). Analysis of Modern Paints, Research in Conservation, Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, USA, (2004).

Pera, J.; Husson, S.; Guilhot, B. (1999) Influence of finely ground limestone on cement hydration. Cement Concrete Comp. 21 [2], 99-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(98)00020-1

Matschei, T.; Lothenbach, B.; Glasser, F.P. (2007) The role of calcium carbonate in cement hydration. Cement Concrete Res. 37 [4], 551-558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.10.013

Kuzel, H.J. (1996) Initial hydration reactions and mechanisms of delayed ettringite formation in Portland cements. Cement Concrete Comp. 18 [3], 195-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/0958-9465(96)00016-9

Taylor, H.F.W. (1992). Cement Chemistry, Academic Press, London, (1992).

Suthatip, S.; Prayoon, S. (2011) Chromium behavior during cement-production processes: A clinkerization, hydration, and leaching study. J Hazard Maters. 191, 296-305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.04.077 PMid:21592657

Reyes-GutiÈrrez, L. R. (2007) Characterization of Chromium in Contaminated Soil Studied by SEM, EDX,XRD and Mossbauer Spectroscopy. JMMCE. 7 [1], 59-70. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2008.71005

Sharma, R.; Sharma, D. K. (2014) Estimation of Water Soluble Hexavalent Chromium in Portland Pozzolana Cement, (2014) Conference on Exploring Basic and Applied Sciences for next generation frontiers, Proceedings Elsevier, 14-15.

Sharma, D. K.; Sharma, R. (2015) Effect of FeSO4.7H2O and SnCl2.2H2O added as Chromium (VI) Reducers in Ordinary Portland Cement. Orient. J. Chem. 31[1], 519-526. https://doi.org/10.13005/ojc/310164

Hage., D. S. Carr., J. R. (2011) Analytical chemistry and quantitative analysis, Pearson, Press, USA, (2011).

Sharma, R.; Sharma, D. K. (2015) Application of Variamine Blue dye in Spectrophotometric determination of Water Soluble Cr (VI) in Portland Cement. Orient. J. Chem. 31 [4], 2231-2237. https://doi.org/10.13005/ojc/310448

Hayes, R.B. (1982) Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 221-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-80441-9.50014-6 PMid:6805057




Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us materconstrucc@ietcc.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es