Usability of cement paste containing carbon nanofibres as an anode in electrochemical chloride extraction from concrete


  • B. del Moral Universidad de Alicante
  • Ó. Galao Universidad de Alicante
  • C. Antón Universidad de Alicante
  • M. A. Climent Universidad de Alicante
  • P. Garcés Universidad de Alicante



electrochemical chloride extraction, conductive cement paste, carbon nanofibers, repair


In the application of the electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) technique, traditionally, the Ti-RuO2 wire netting has been used as the external anode. This article provides the results of the research based on the use of conductive cement paste with addition of carbon nanofibers (CNF) as anodes and its application in ECE. The tests were developed in concrete specimens previously contaminated with chloride. The efficiencies achieved were compared with those obtained using a traditional anode (Ti-RuO2) and cement pastes with the addition of other carbonaceous materials. The results show the feasibility of using conductive cement paste with CNF as the anode in the electrochemical extraction of chlorides in concrete, finding similar efficiencies to those obtained with traditional Ti-RuO2 wire netting but with the added advantage that it can be adapted to complex structural geometries as it can be applied as a paste.


Download data is not yet available.


(1) Slater, J.E., Lankard, D.R., Moreland, P.J.: “Electrochemical removal of chlorides from concrete bridge decks”. Mater. Perform., 15 (1976) pp. 21-26. ISSN: 03611981

(2) Vennesland, Ø.; Opsahl, O.A.; Russell-Rayner, A.P.: Removal of chlorides from concrete, European Patent Application number 86302888.2, Publication number 0 200 428, (1986).

(3) Roper, H.: Method for inhibiting concrete cancer, World Intellectual Property Organization, International Patent Publication number WO 93/21130, (1993).

(4) Bennett, J.E.; Blasius, J.R.; Mitchell, T.A.; Turk, T.R.; Schue, T.J.: Apparatus for the removal of chloride from reinforced concrete structures. U.S. Patent number 5296120, (1994).

(5) Elsener, B.; Böhni, H.: “Electrochemical chloride removal field test”, in: R.N. Swamy, (Ed.), Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Steel in Concrete, Vol. 2, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, U.K., (1994), pp. 1451-1462.

(6) Hope, B.B.; Ihekwaba, N.M.; Hansson, C.M.: “Influence of multiple rebar mats on electrochemical removal of chloride ions from concrete”, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 192-194 (1995), pp. 883-890. ISSN: 02555476

(7) Andrade, C.; Castellote, M.; Alonso, C.: “An overview of electrochemical realkalisation and chloride extraction”, in D.W.S. Ho, I. Godson and F. Collins, eds., Proceedings of 2nd Int. RILEM/CSIRO/ACRA Conference on Rehabilitation of Structures, Melbourne, Australia, (1998), pp. 1-12.

(8) Tritthart, J.: Electrochemical chloride removal: an overview and scientific aspects, in J. Skalny and S. Mindess, eds., Materials Science of Concrete V, published by the American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, USA, (1998), pp. 401-441.

(9) Electrochemical Rehabilitation Methods for Reinforced Concrete Structures. A State of the Art Report, J. Mietz, ed., Publication number 24 of the European Federation of Corrosion, IOM Communications Ltd., London, (1998), pp. 57 .

(10) Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G.: “Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects”, Cem. Concr. Res., 34 (2004) pp. 227-234.

(11) Polder, R.B.: Electrochemical techniques for corrosion protection and maintenance, in: H. Böhni, (Ed.), Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete Structures, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, (2005), pp. 215-241.

(12) Climent, M.A.; Sánchez de Rojas, M.I.; de Vera, G.; Garcés, P.: “Effect of type of anodic arrangements on the efficiency of electrochemical chloride removal from concrete”, ACI Mat. J., 103 (4) (2006), pp. 243-250. ISSN: 0889325X

(13) Yeih, W.; Chang, J.J.; Hung, C.C.: “Selecting an adequate procedure for the electrochemical chloride removal”, Cem. Concr. Res., 36 (2006) pp. 562-570.

(14) Garcés, P.; Sánchez de Rojas, M.I.; Climent, M.A.: “Effect of the reinforcement bar arrangement on the efficency of electrochemical chloride removal technique applied to reinforced concrete structures”, Corros. Sci., 48 (3) (2006) pp. 531-545.

(15) Miranda, J.M.; González, J.A.; Cobo, A.; Otero, E.: “Several questions about electrochemical rehabilitation methods for reinforced concrete structures”, Corros. Sci, 48 (2006) pp. 2172–2188.

(16) Sánchez de Rojas, M.I.; Garcés, P.; Climent, M.A.: “Extracción electroquímica de cloruros del hormigón armado: estudio de diferentes variables que influyen en la eficacia del tratamiento”, Mater. Construcc., 56 (284) (2006) pp. 7-26. ISSN: 04652746

(17) Toumi, A.; François, R.; Alvarado, O.: “Experimental and numerical study of electrochemical chloride removal from brick and concrete specimens”, Cem. Concr. Res., 37 (2007) pp. 54-62.

(18) Miranda, J.M.; Cobo, A.; Otero, E.; González, J.A.: “Limitations and advantages of electrochemical chloride removal in corroded reinforced concrete structures”, Cem. Concr. Res., 37 (2007) pp. 596-603.

(19) Abdelaziz, G.E.; Abdelalim, A.M.K.; Fawzy, Y.A.: “Evaluation of the short and longterm efficiencies of electro-chemical chloride extraction”, Cem. Concr. Res., 39 (2009) pp. 727-732.

(20) Pérez, A.; Climent, M.A.; Garcés, P.: “Electrochemical extraction of chlorides from reinforced concrete using a conductive cement paste as an anode”, Corros. Sci., 52 (2010) pp. 1576-1581.

(21) Bertolini, L.; Bolzoni, F.; Pastore, T.; Pedeferri, P.: “Effectiveness of a conductive cementitious mortar anode for cathodic protection of steel in concrete”, Cem. Concr. Res., 34 (4) (2004) pp. 681-694.

(22) Xu, J.; Yao, W.: “Current distribution in reinforced concrete cathodic protection system with conductive mortar overlay anode”, Const. Build. Mat., 23 (6) (2009) pp. 2220-2226.

(23) Profile Grinder (PF-1100), Germann Instruments A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark, (1996).

(24) Climent, M.A.; de Vera, G.; Viqueira, E.; López, M.M.: “Generalization of the possibility of eliminating the filtration step in the determination of acid-soluble chloride content in cement and concrete by potentiometric titration”, Cem. Concr. Res., 34 (12) (2004) pp. 2291-2295.

(25) Climent M.A.; Viqueira E.; de Vera G., López M.M., “Chloride contamination of concrete by interaction with PVC combustion gases”, Cem. Concr. Res., 28 (2) (1998) pp. 209-219.

(26) de Vera G., Climent M.A., Viqueira E.; Antón C.; Andrade C.: “A test method for measuring chloride diffusion coefficients through partially saturated concrete. Part II: The instantaneous plane source diffusion case with chloride binding consideration”, Cem. Concr. Res., 37 (5) (2007) pp. 714-724.

(27) Título: Composite cementicio con nanofibras de carbono para monitorización de deformaciones,. Solicitud de Patente: P200901735. Investigador responsable: Pedro Garcés.

(28) Título: Composite cementicio con nanofibras de carbono para calefacción, Solicitud de patente: P200901735. Investigador responsable: Pedro Garcés.




How to Cite

Moral, B. del, Galao, Ó., Antón, C., Climent, M. A., & Garcés, P. (2013). Usability of cement paste containing carbon nanofibres as an anode in electrochemical chloride extraction from concrete. Materiales De Construcción, 63(309), 39–48.



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>