Influence of whitening additives on the properties of decorative slag-alkali cements and mortars




Alkali-activated slag cements, Colour stability, Pigments, Decorative cements, Freeze/thaw resistance, Behaviour


The paper shows a comparative study of the influence of whitening additives (kaolin, TiO2 and СаСО3) on the production of decorative alkali-activated slag cement and mortars with a degree of whiteness of at least 70%; as well as their influence on the structure formation and evolution of physico-mechanical properties. According to results obtained, kaolin provides chemical bonding of Na+ into insoluble zeolite-like compounds; and CaCO3 densifies the structure and reduces shrinkage deformations. At the early stages of hardening (up to 7 days), the additions of kaolin and calcite, due to their significant amount (15 and 24%), reduces the compressive strength of the cement paste; nevertheless, at later ages (until 90 days) the difference in strength almost disappears. The high colourfastness and weather resistance of pigmented cements under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and freeze/thaw cycles has been established. A comparative assessment of the economic efficiency has shown that СаСО3 is the best cost-effective additive.


Download data is not yet available.


Gartner, E. (2004) Industrially interesting approaches to "low-CO2" cements. Cem. Concr. Res. 34 [9], 1489-1498.

Damtoft, J.S.; Lukasik, J.; Herfort, D.; Sorrentino, D.; Gartner, E. (2008) Sustainable development and climate change initiatives. Cem. Concr. Res. 38 [2], 115-127.

Provis, J.L.; van Deventer, J.S.J. (2014) Alkali activated materials. State-of-the-art report. RILEM TC 224-AAM. Springer.

Taylor, M.; Tarn, C; Gielen, D. (2006) Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions from the global cement industry. Energy Technology Policy Division. International Energy Agency. Retrieved from (Accessed on: July 19, 2022).

White cement market forecast by type (White portland cement, white masonry cement, and others) and end use (Residential, commercial, and industrial): Global opportunity analysis and industry forecast. 2018-2025. Retrieved from (Accessed on: July 19, 2022).

Krivenko, P.V.; Runova, R.F.; Sanickij, M.A.; Rudenko, I.I. (2015) Shhelochnye cementy: monografija, Ltd "Osnova", Kyiv (2015) (in Russian).

Blanco-Varela, M.T.; Puertas, F.; Vázquez, T; Palomo, A. (1996) Modelling of burnability of white cement made with CaF2 and CaSO4. Cem. Concr. Res. 26 [3], 457-464.

Chistjakov, G.I. (1976) Vlijanie uslovij otbelivanija klinkera na dekorativnye svojstva cementov; V kn.: Shestoj mezhdunarodnyj congress po himii cementa. Moscow, 3, I58-161. (in Russian).

Luchinskij, G.P. (1971) Himija titana, Himija, Moscow, (1971) (in Russian).

Simons, P.Y.; Dachille, F. (1976) The structure of TiO2 II, a high-pressure phase of TiO2. Acta Crystallographica. 23 [2], 334-336.

von Weizsacker, E.U.; Hargroves, C.; Smith, M.H.; Desha, C.; Stasinopoulos, P. (2009) Factor five: transforming the global economy through 80% improvements in resource productivity. Earthscan, London (2009). ISBN 9780415848602.

McLellan, B.C.; Williams, R.P.; Lay, J. van Riessen, A.; Corder, G.D. (2011) Costs and carbon emissions for geopolymer pastes in comparison to ordinary Portland cement. J. Clean. Produc. 19 [9], 1080-1090.

Gluhovskij, V.D. (1979) Shhelochnye i shhelochno-shhelochnozemel'nye gidravlicheskie vjazhushhie i betony. Vishha shkola, Kyiv, (1979) (in Russian).

Gluhovskij, V.D. (1981) Shlakoshhelochnye betony na melkozernistyh zapolniteljah: Monografija. Vishha shkola, Kyiv, (1981). (in Russian).

Gluhovskij, V.D. (1992) Izbrannye Trudy. Budіvel'nik, Kyiv, (1992). (in Russian).

Krivenko, P.V. (1992) Special'nye shlakoshhelochnye cementy: monografija. Budіvel'nik, Kyiv, (1992). (in Russian).

Kryvenko, P.V.; Pushkar'ova K.K. (1993) Dovgovichnist' shlako-luzhnogo betonu: monografija. Budivel'nyk, Kyiv, (1993). (in Ukrainian).

Krivenko, P.V. (1994) Alkaline cements. Alkaline Cements and Concretes: Materials First Intern. Conf. Kyiv, 11-19.

Krivenko, P.V.; Petropavlovskij O.N.; Gelevera A.G.; Voznjuk G.V.; Pushkar V.I. (2009) Promyshlennye shhelochnye cementy i ih effektivnost. Nauchno-tehnicheskij sbornik. Aktual'nye problemy stroitel'stva". Rivne, 64-71. (in Russian).

Krivenko, P.V. (2017) Why alkaline activation - 60 years of the theory and practice of alkali-activated materials. J. Ceram. Sci. Technol. 8 [3], 323-334.

Shi, C.; Krivenko, P.; Della, Roy (2014) Alkaline activated cements and concretes: Monograph Engineering & Technology, London, (2014).

Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Garcia-Lodeiro, I.; Maltseva, O.; Palomo, A. (2019) Hydration mechanisms of hybrid cements as a function of the way of addition of chemicals. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 102 [1], 427-436.

Krivenko, P.; Petropavlovsky, O.; Kovalchuk, O.; Pasko, А.; Lapovska, S. (2018) Designof the composition of alkali activated Portland cement using mineral additives of technogenic origin. Eastern-Europ. J. Enterp. Technol. 4 [6 (94)], 6-15.

Krivenko, P.V.; Petropavlovsky, O.N.; Gots, V.I.; Rostovskaya, G.S. (2009) Alkali activation of composite cement. Ibausil. Internationale Baustofftagung (Weimar). 1, 445-456.

Chaouche, M.; Gao, Х.Х.; Cyr, М.; Cotte, М.; Frouin, L. (2017) On the origin of the blue/green color of blast-furnace slag-based materials: Sulfur K-edge XANES investigation. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100, 1707-16.

Labrincha, J.; Puertas, F.; Schroeyers, W., Kovler, K.; Pontikes, Y.; Nuccetelli, C. (2017) 7-From NORM by-products to building materials. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction. Woodhead Publishing, 183-252.

Sidochenko, I.M.; Krugljak, S.L.; Rumyna, G.V.; Gluhovskij, V.D.; Skurchinskaja, Zh.V. (1974) A.s. № 446480 Vjazhushhee. Zajavl. 15.01.73. Bjul. izobret., 38. (in Russian).

Gluhovskij, V.D.; Pis'mennaja, A.Ju.; Rumyna, G.V. (1981) Ispol'zovanie krasnogo shlama dlja poluchenija shlakoshhelochnogo dekorativnogo vjazhushhego. J. Stroitel'nye materialy, izdelija i sanitarnaja tehnik. 4, 35-36. (in Russian).

Krivenko, P.V.; Kovalchuk, A.Y. (2019) Management of the decorative properties of alkali cements. J. Build. Eng. 2 [95], 280-285.

Bernal, S.A.; Provis, J.L.; Myers, R.J.; Racktl, S.N.; van Deventer, J.S.J. (2015) Role of carbonates in the chemicalevolution of sodium carbonate-activated slag binders. J. Mater. Struct. 48 [3], 517-529.

Krivenko, P.V.; Kovalchuk, A.Y.; Ostrovskaja, L.M. (2011) Studying of posibility of increase of slag-alkali cements whiteness degree. J. Collection «Building materials, producters and technical equipment». Kyiv, Research Institute of Building Materials and Products. 41, 10-14.

Krivenko, P.; Petropavlvskyy, O.; Puskar, V.; Ostrovska, L. (2011) Decorative alkaline cements. IV Intern. Symp: Non-Traditional Cement & Concrete. Brno, 257-265.

Kryvenko, P.; Sanytsky, M.; Kropyvnytska, T.; Kotiv, R. (2014) Decorative multi-component alkali activated cements for restoration and finishing works. Adv. Mat. Res. 897, 45-48.

Fernandes de Magalhães, L.; França, S.; dos Santos Oliveira, M.; Fiorotti Peixoto, R.A.; Araújo Lima Bessa, S.; da Silva Bezerra, A.C. (2020) Iron ore tailings as a supplementary cementitious material in the production of pigmented cements. J. Clean. Prod. 274,123260.

Barros Galvão, J.L.; Dias Andrade, H.; Brigolini, G.; Fiorotti Peixoto, R.A.; Castro Mendes, J. (2018) Reuse of iron ore tailings from tailings dams as pigment for sustainable paints. J. Clean. Prod. 200, 412-422.

Fontes, W.; Gonçalves Fontes, G.; Pinto Costa, E.C.; Castro Mendes, J.; Brigolini, G.; Fiorotti Peixoto, R.A. (2018) Iron ore tailings in the production of cement tiles: a value analysis on building sustainability. J. Amb. Cons. 18 [4], 395-412.

Ghalehnovi, M.; Roshan, N.; Hakak, E.; Asadi Shamsabadi, E.; de Brito, J. (2019) Effect of red mud (bauxite residue) as cement replacement on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporating various fillers. J. Clean. Prod. 240, 118213.

Rashad, A.M.; Morsi, W.M.; Khafaga, S.A.; (2021) Effect of limestone powder on mechanical strength, durability and drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag pastes. Innov. Infrastruct. Solut. 127.

Borziak, O.S.; Plugin, A.A.; Chepurna, S.M.; Zavalniy, O.V.; Dudin, O.A. (2019) The effect of added finely dispersed calcite on the corrosion resistance of cement compositions. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 708: 012080. .

Chepurna, S.; Borziak, O.; Zubenko, S. (2019) Concretes, modified by the addition of high-diffused chalk, for small architectural forms. J. MSF. 968, 82-88.

Hohol, M.; Lubenets, V.l; Komarovska-Porokhnyavets, O.; Sanytsky, M. (2020) Effect of Nano-TiO2 and ETS antifungal agent addition on the mechanical and biocidal properties of cement mortars. Proceedings of EcoComfort 2020. 134-141.

Hohol, M.; Sanytsky, M.; Kropyvnytska, T.; Barylyak, A.; Bobitski, Y. (2020) The effect of sulfur- and carbon-codoped TiO2 nanocomposite on the photocatalytic and mechanical properties of cement mortars. Eastern-Europ. J. Enterp. Technol. 4 [6-106], 6-14.

DSTU B V.2.7-181:2009 (2009) Cementy luzhni. Tehnichni umovy. Ministerstvo regional'nogo rozvytku ta budivnyctva Ukrai'ny, Kyiv. (in Ukrainian).

DSTU EN 196-1:2019 (EN 196-1:2016, IDT) (2020) Metody vyprobuvannja cementu. Chastyna 1. Vyznachennja micnosti. Minbud Ukrai'ny, Kyiv. (in Ukrainian).

Voznesenskij, V.A.; Ljashenko, T.V.; Ogarkov, B.L. (1989) Chislennye metody reshenija stroitel'no-tehnologicheskih zadach na JeVM. Vishha shkola, Kyiv. (1989). Retrieved from (in Russian).

Butt, Ju.M.; Timashev, V.V. (1973) Praktikum po himicheskoj tehnologi vjazhushhih veshhestv. Vysshaja shkola, Moscow. (in Russian).

DSTU B V.2.7-47-96 Betony. (1997) Metody opredelenija morozoustojchivosti. Obshhie trebovanija. Gosudarstvennyj komitet po delam gorodskogo stroitel'stva i arhitektury, Kyiv. (in Ukrainian).

DSTU B V.2.7-268:2011 (2012) Portlandcement kol'orovyj. Tehnichni umovy. Minregion Ukrai'ny, Kyiv. (in Ukrainian).

DSTU B V.2.7-69-98 (1999) Dobavki dlja betonov. Metody opredelenija jeffektivnosti. Kyiv : Gosstroj Ukrainy. (in Ukrainian).

EN 1542-1999 (1999) Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures.Test methods. Measurement of bond strength by pull-off, European Committee for Standardization.

Gorshkov, V.S.; Timashev, V.V.; Savel'ev, V.G. (1981) Metody fiziko-himicheskogo analiza vjazhushhih veshhestv. Vysshaja shkola, Moscow, (1981). (in Russian).

Semenov, E.I. (1981) Mineralogicheskie tablicy : Spravochnik. Nedra, Moscow, (1981). (in Russian).

DSTU B V.2.7-257:2011 (2011) Portlandcementy belye. Tehnicheskie uslovija. NDІBMV, Budstandart, Kyiv. (in Ukrainian).

Kovalchuk, O; Grabovchak, V; Govdun, Y. (2018) Alkali activated cements mix design for concretes application in high corrosive conditions. Matec Web Conf. 230 [94], 03007.

Karavajev, T.A. (2015) Vodno-dyspersijni farby: tovaroznavcha ocinka: monograph. Kyi'vs'kyj nacional'nyj torgovo-ekonomichnyj universytet, Kyiv. (2015). (in Ukrainian).

Kropyvnytska, T.; Semeniv, R.; Kotiv, R.; Kaminskyy, A.; Hots, V.; (2019) Studying the effect of nanoliquids on the operational properties of brick building structures. Eastern-Europ. J. Enterp. Technol. 5/6 [95], 27-32.

Lutskin, Y.; Shynkevych, O.; Myronenko, I.; Zakabluk, S.; Surkov, O. (2018) The influence of the content on structure and properties of geopolymer composites on silicate matrix. Matec Web Conf. 230, 03011.

Huang, W.; Kazemi-Kamyab, H.; Sun, W.; Scrivener, K. (2017) Effect of cement substitution by lime stone on the hydration and microstructural development of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Cem. Concr. Compos. 77, 86-101.

Li Leo, G.; Kwan Albert, K.H. (2015) Adding lime stone fines as cementitious paste replacement to improve tensile strength, stiffness and durability of concrete. Cem. Concr. Compos. 60, 17-24.

Smirnova, O.M.; Belentsov, Y.A.; Kharitonov, A.M. (2019) Influence of polyolefin fibers on the strength and deformability properties of road pavement concrete. J. Traffic Transp. Eng. 6 [4], 407-417.

Spravochnik himika 21. Himija i himicheskaja tehnologija. 98. Retrieved from (Accessed on: June 19, 2022). (in Russian).

Ocheretnyj, V.P.; Koval'skij, V.P.; Mashnickij, M.P. (2006) Kompleksnaja aktivnaja mineral'naja dobavka na osnove othodov promyshlennosti. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov po materialam IV mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj Internet-konferencii "Sostojanie sovremennoj stroitel'noj nauki - 2006". Poltavskij CNTJeI, Poltava, 116-121. (in Russian).



How to Cite

Krivenko, P., Puertas, F., Gots, V., Helevera, O., & Rogozina, N. . (2023). Influence of whitening additives on the properties of decorative slag-alkali cements and mortars. Materiales De Construcción, 73(350), e311.



Research Articles

Funding data

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>