The influence of the curing conditions of concrete on durability after freeze-thaw accelerated testing
Keywords:Concrete, Freezing/thawing, Hydration, Permeability, Curing
This work relates the curing conditions of concrete with the damage caused by rapid freeze-thaw cycles (ASTM C 666). The “potential” durability of concrete after testing is also studied. In countries with a continental climate, the curing of concrete in summer is performed under high-temperature and low-humidity conditions, and during the winter the concrete undergoes freezing and thawing. This paper shows the experimental results of the behaviour of concrete specimens cured under climatic summer conditions and then subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. Curing of the specimens includes conditions of good and bad practice in relation to wetting and protection of the concrete. Mechanical properties, cement hydration, volume and pore sizes, oxygen permeability, chloride diffusion and water penetration under pressure tests of the concrete are assessed. These tests were performed before and after the application of the freeze-thaw cycles. Statistical analysis of the correlation among variables is also included.
1. Medina, M.; de Rojas, I.; Frias, M. (2013) Freeze-thaw durability of recycled concrete containing ceramic aggregate. Journal of Cleaner Production, 40, 151–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.08.042
2. Richardson, E.; Coventry, K.A.; Wilkinson, S. (2012). Freeze/thaw durability of concrete with synthetic fibre additions. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 83–84, 49-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2012.06.006
3. Haitao, Y.; Shizhu, T. (2015) Preparation and properties of high-strength recycled concrete in cold areas. Mater. Construcc. 65 , e050.
4. Enfedaque, A.; Romero, H.L.; Gálvez, J.C. (2014).Fracture energy evolution of two concretes resistant to the action of freeze-thaw cycles. Mater. Construcc. 64 , e005.
5. Valenza, J.; Scherer, G.W. (2007) A review of salt scaling: I. Phenomenology. Cement and Concrete Research, 37, 1007–1021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.03.005
6. Valenza, J.; Scherer, G. (2007) A review of salt scaling: II. Mechanisms. Cement and Concrete Research, 37, 1022–1034. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.03.003
7. Pigeon, M.; Marchand, J.; Pleau, R. (1996). Construction and Building Materials, 10, 339–348.
8. Li, W.; Pour-Ghaz, M.; Castro, J.; Weiss, J. (2012) Water Absorption and Critical Degree of Saturation Relating to Freeze-Thaw Damage in Concrete Pavement Joints. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 24 , 299–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000383
9. Aguirre, A.M.; Mejía de Guriérrez, R. (2013) Durability of reinforced concrete exposed to aggressive conditions. Mater. Construcc. 63 , 7–38.
10. Wu, Y.; Wu, B. (2014) Residual compressive strength and freeze–thaw resistance of ordinary concrete after high temperature. Construction and Building Materials, 54, 596–604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.12.089
11. Yi, S.T.; Pae, S.W.; Kim, J.K. (2011) Minimum curing time prediction of early-age concrete to prevent frost damage. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 1439–1449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.09.021
12. Auskern, A.B.; Horn, W.H. (1976) Effect of curing conditions on the capillary porosity of hardened portland cement pastes. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 59, 29–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1976.tb09380.x
13. Sun, Z.; Scherer, G.W. (2010) Effect of air voids on salt scaling and internal freezing. Cement and Concrete Research, 40, 260–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2009.09.027
14. Shang, H-S.; Yi, T-H. (2013) Freeze-Thaw Durability of Air-Entrained Concrete. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, Article ID 650791, 6 pages.
15. Klieger, P.; Gebler, S.H. (1987) Fly ash and concrete durability. ACI Special Publication SP-100 (ed. J. Scanlon), 1043–1069.
16. Afrani, C.; Rogers, C. (1993) The effect of different cementing materials and curing regimes on the scaling resistance of concrete. In: Third Canadian Symposium on Cement and Concrete, 149–166.
17. Bilodeau, A.; Carette, G.G.; Malhotra, V.M.; Langley, W.S. (1993) Influence of curing and drying on the salt scaling resistance of fly ash concrete. ACI Special Publication SP-126 (ed. VM Malhotra), 201–228.
18. Langlois, M.; Beaupré, D.; Pigeon, M.; Foy, C. (1989) The influence of curing on salt scaling resistance of concrete with and without silica fume. ACI Special Publication SP-114 (ed. VM Malhotra), 971–990.
19. Neville, A.M. (1995) Properties of concrete. Longman Scientific & Technical. UK.
20. Escalante-García, J.I.; Sharp, J.H. (2001) The microstructure and mechanical properties of blended cements hydrated at various temperatures. Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 695–702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00471-9
21. Kjellsen, K.O.; Detwiler, R.J.; Gjorv, O.E. (1991) Development of microstructures in plain cement pastes hydrated at different temperatures. Cement Concrete Research, 21, 179–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(91)90044-I
22. Kjellsen, K.O.; Detwiler, R.J.; Gjorv, O.E. (1990) Pore structure of plain cement pastes hydrated at different temperatures. Cement Concrete Research, 20, 927–933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(90)90055-3
23. Price, W.H. (1951) Factors influencing concrete strength. ACI Journal, 47, 417–432.
24. Copeland, L.E.; Kantro, D.L. (1969) Hydration of Portland cement. In: Proc. Int. Symp. Chem. Cem., Tokyo, 387–421.
25. Khurana, R.; Torresan, I. (1997) New admixtures for eliminating steam curing and its negative effects on durability. ACI Special Publication SP-173, 83–103.
26. Jacobsen, S.; Saether, D.H.; Sellevold, E.J. (1997) Frost testing of high strength concrete: frost/salt scaling at different cooling rates. Materials and Structures, 30, 33–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02498738
27. Jonsson, J.A.; Olek, J. (2004) Effect of temperature-match-curing on freeze-thaw and scaling resistance of high-strength concrete. Cement, Concrete and Aggregates. ASTM International, 26, 21–25.
28. ASTM C666/C 666M-03 (2008). Standard Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing. ASTM International, vol. 4.02, 341–346.
29. Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. (2014) Pore Size Distribution in Cement Pastes in Relation to Freeze-Thaw Distress. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering.
30. EHE-08 (2008), Structural Concrete Spanish Code, (in Spanish), Ministerio Fomento, Spain.
31. EN 12390-3 (2003) Testing hardened concrete, Part 3: compressive strength of test specimens, AENOR, Spain.
32. UNE 12390-13 (2014) Concrete tests. Determination of secant modulus of elasticity in compression, AENOR, Spain.
33. EN 12390-6 (2005) Testing hardened concrete, Part 6: tensile splitting strength of test specimens, AENOR, Spain.
34. ASTM D4404 (2004) Standard test for determination of pore volume distribution of soil and rock by MIP, ASTM International.
35. RILEM- TC 116-PCD (1999) Permeability of concrete as a criterion of its durability, Materials & Structures, 32, 174–178.
36. Kollej, J.J. (1989) The determination of the permeability of concrete to oxygen by Cembureau method-a recommendation. Materials & Structures, 22, 225–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02472192
37. ASTM C1543 (2002) Standard test for determination the penetration chloride ion concrete by ponding, ASTM International.
38. UNE 112010 (1994) Assembly corrosion. Chloride determination for in service concrete. AENOR, Spain.
39. EN 12390-8 (2009) Testing hardened concrete, Part 8: depth of penetration of water under pressure, AENOR, Spain.
40. ASTM E1131 (2008) Standard Test Method for Compositional Analysis by Thermogravimetry, ASTM International.
41. ASTM C 143 (2010) Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete. ASTM International.
42. Zhao, J.; Caib, G.; Gao, D.; Zhao, S. (2014) Influences of freeze–thaw cycle and curing time on chloride ion penetration resistance of Sulphoaluminate cement concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 53, 305–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.110
43. Belia, S.; Fidler, F.; Willams, J.; Cumming, G. (2005) Researchers misunderstand confidence intervals and standard error bars, Psychological Method, 10 , 389–396.
44. Masson, M.E.; Loftus, G.R. (2003) Using confidence intervals for graphically based data interpretation, Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57 , 203–220.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.